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Updated:Sunday 12th October 2014

Taliban Definition

Islamic militant force founded by Mullah Mohammad Umar. Following the Soviet Union's 1989 withdrawal from Afghanistan , the Taliban arose as a popular reaction to the chaos that gripped the country. In 1994–95, under the leadership of Mullah Mohammad Omar, the Taliban extended its control in Afghanistan from a single city to more than half the country, and in 1996 it captured Kabul and instituted a strict Islamic regime. By 1999, the Taliban controlled most of Afghanistan but failed to win international recognition of its regime because of its harsh social policies which included the almost complete removal of women from public life and its role as a haven for Islamic extremists. (Wikipedia) - Taliban For the former Mexican drug lord, see Iván Velázquez Caballero. Not to be confused with Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. Taliban (طالبان) Active Ideology Groups Leaders Headquarters Area of operations Strength Originated as Allies Opponents Battles and warsWebsite
Participant in Afghan Civil War; War in Afghanistan
A flag used by the Taliban from 1997 to 2001
1994–1996 (militia) 1996–2001 (government) 2004–present (insurgency)
Deobandi fundamentalism Pashtunwali
Mullah Mohammed Omar
Kandahar (1996-2001)
Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan
45,000 (2001 est.) 11,000 (2008 est.) 36,000 (2010 est.) 60,000 (2014 est.)
Students of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam
Haqqani network Lashkar-e-Jhangvi Sipah-e-Sahaba Islamic Emirate of Waziristan Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi East Turkestan Islamic Movement Caucasian Front Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin al-Qaeda

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

  • Afghan National Army
  • Afghan Air Force
  • Afghan National Police

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  • International Security Assistance Force
Islamic Republic of Iran
Civil war in Afghanistan (1992–96) Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001) War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Afghan Civil War
  • Saur Revolution (1978)
  • Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979-89)
  • Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–92)
  • Civil war in Afghanistan (1992–96)
  • Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001)
  • War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
Deobandi movement Ideology and influences Founders and key figures Notable institutions Associated movements
Part of a series on the
Darul Uloom Deoband, India
  • Shah Waliullah • Dars-e-Nizami
  • Maturidi theology • Hanafi fiqh
  • Sufism (Chishti, Naqshbandi, Qadiri and Suhrawardi orders)
  • Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki
  • Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi
  • Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
  • Husain A. Madani (Shaykh al-Islam)
  • Mahmud al-Hasan (Shaykh al-Hind)
  • Ashraf Ali Thanwi (Hakim al-Ummat)
  • Anwar Shah Kashmiri
  • Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi
  • Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
  • Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi
  • List of Deobandi ulama

Darul ulooms and madrasas

  • Deoband • Mazahir Uloom
  • Nadwatul Ulama • Dabhel
  • Hathazari Madrassah • Ashrafia
  • Karachi • Jamia Uloom-ul-Islamia
  • Bury • New York • In''aamiyyah
  • List of Deobandi universities

Centres (markaz) of tabligh

  • Nizamuddin • Raiwind • Dhaka
  • Dewsbury
  • Tablighi Jamaat
  • Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind
  • Taliban
  • Charmonai
  • v
  • t
  • e

The Taliban (Pashto: طالبان‎ ṭālibān "students"), alternative spelling Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. It spread throughout Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. However, it gained diplomatic recognition from only three states: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Mohammed Omar is the founder and has been serving as the spiritual leader of the Taliban since its foundation in 1994.

While in power, it enforced a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law, an interpretation of which leading Muslims have been highly critical. The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women. The majority of the Taliban are made up of Afghan Pashtun tribesmen. The Taliban''s leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism, and many also strictly follow the social and cultural norm called Pashtunwali.

From 1995 to 2001, the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence and military are widely alleged by the international community to have provided support to the Taliban. Their connections are possibly through Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, a terrorist group founded by Sami ul Haq. Pakistan is accused by many international officials of continuing to support the Taliban; Pakistan states that it dropped all support for the group after 9/11. Al-Qaeda also supported the Taliban with regiments of imported fighters from Arab countries and Central Asia. Saudi Arabia provided financial support. The Taliban and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to 160,000 starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes during their rule from 1996 to 2001. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to flee to United Front-controlled territory, Pakistan, and Iran.

After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Taliban were overthrown by the American-led invasion of Afghanistan. Later it regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). The Taliban have been accused of using terrorism as a specific tactic to further their ideological and political goals. According to the United Nations, the Taliban and their allies were responsible for 75% of Afghan civilian casualties in 2010, 80% in 2011, and 80% in 2012.


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