Southern California

کالیفرنیای جنوبی

ID:14576 Section: Place

Updated:Tuesday 27th January 2015

Southern California Definition

(Wikipedia) - Southern California This article is about the south of the U.S. state of California. For the peninsula in western Mexico, see Baja California peninsula. For the university in Los Angeles, see University of Southern California. For the Mexican state of the Sudcalifornianos, see Baja California Sur. "SoCal" and "Socal" redirect here. For other uses, see SoCal (disambiguation).
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2011)
Southern California State Largest city Population (2010)
Megaregion of the U.S.
Southern California Images top from bottom, left to right: San Diego Skyline, Downtown Los Angeles, Village of La Jolla, Santa Monica Pier, Surfer at Black''s Beach, Hollywood Sign, Disneyland, Hermosa Beach Pier
Los Angeles

Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a megaregion or megapolitan area in the southern portion of the US state of California. Large urban areas include Greater Los Angeles and Greater San Diego. The region generally comprises California''s southernmost 10 counties, stretching along the coast from about San Luis Obispo County to the United States and Mexico border, and from the Pacific Ocean inland to the Nevada and Arizona borders. The heavily built-up urban area stretches along the coast from Ventura, through the Greater Los Angeles Area, the Inland Empire and down to San Diego. Southern California is a major economic center for the state of California and the United States.

Southern California''s population encompasses eight metropolitan areas, or MSAs: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, consisting of Los Angeles and Orange counties; the Inland Empire, consisting of Riverside and San Bernardino counties; the San Diego metropolitan area; the Bakersfield metropolitan area; the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area; the Santa Barbara metro area; the San Luis Obispo metropolitan area; and the El Centro area. Out of these, three are heavy populated areas: the Los Angeles area with over 12 million inhabitants, the Riverside-San Bernardino area with over 4 million inhabitants, and the San Diego area with over 3 million inhabitants. For CSA metropolitan purposes, the five counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura are all combined to make up the Greater Los Angeles Area with over 17.5 million people. With over 22 million people, southern California contains roughly 60% of California''s population.

To the east of southern California are the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with the state of Arizona and the Mojave Desert at the border with the state of Nevada. To the south lies the international border with Mexico, and to the west lies the Pacific Ocean.

  • 1 Significance
  • 2 Northern boundary of Southern California
  • 3 Urban landscape
  • 4 Natural landscape
  • 5 Geography
    • 5.1 Geographic features
    • 5.2 Geology
      • 5.2.1 Earthquakes
  • 6 Regions
    • 6.1 Divisions
  • 7 Populace
    • 7.1 Cities
    • 7.2 Counties
  • 8 Economy
    • 8.1 Industries
    • 8.2 Major central business districts
    • 8.3 Theme parks and waterparks
    • 8.4 Vinyard-Winery AVA districts
  • 9 Transportation
    • 9.1 Airports
    • 9.2 Freeways and highways
    • 9.3 Public transportation
  • 10 Communication
    • 10.1 Telephone area codes
  • 11 Colleges and universities
  • 12 Parks and recreation areas
  • 13 Sports
  • 14 See also
  • 15 References
  • 16 External links

SignificanceSan Diego Marina districtSunset in Venice, a district in Los Angeles

Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country''s largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. To the south and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation.

Its counties of Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States and all five are the top 5 most populous counties in California. The region is also home to Los Angeles International Airport, the second-busiest airport in the United States by passenger volume (see World''s busiest airports by passenger traffic) and the third by international passenger volume (see Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic); San Diego International Airport the busiest single runway airport in the world; Van Nuys Airport, the world''s busiest general aviation airport; major commercial airports at Orange County, Bakersfield, Ontario, Burbank and Long Beach; and numerous smaller commercial and general aviation airports. Southern California is also home to the Port of Los Angeles, the United States'' busiest commercial port; the adjacent Port of Long Beach, the United States'' second busiest container port; and the Port of San Diego. Also of note in the region is the freeway system, which is the world''s busiest. Six of the seven lines of the commuter rail system, Metrolink, run out of Downtown Los Angeles, connecting Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego counties with the other line connecting San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties directly.

University of California, Santa Barbara

The Tech Coast is a moniker that has gained use as a descriptor for the region''s diversified technology and industrial base as well as its multitude of prestigious and world-renowned research universities and other public and private institutions. Amongst these include 5 University of California campuses (Irvine, Los Angeles, Riverside, Santa Barbara, and San Diego); 12 California State University campuses (Bakersfield, Channel Islands, Dominguez Hills, Fullerton, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Northridge, Pomona, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Marcos, and San Luis Obispo); and private institutions such as the California Institute of Technology, Chapman University, the Claremont Colleges (Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College, Pomona College, and Scripps College), Loma Linda University, Loyola Marymount University, Occidental College, Pepperdine University, University of Redlands, University of San Diego, and the University of Southern California.

Universal Studios at Hollywood

Southern California is also the entertainment (motion picture, television, and recorded music) capital of the world and is home to Hollywood, a district in Los Angeles and a name associated with the motion picture industry. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company (which also owns ABC), Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers.

Besides the entertainment industry, southern California is also home to a large home grown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Volcom, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, and Body Glove are all headquartered in southern California. Professional skateboarder Tony Hawk, professional surfers Rob Machado, Tim Curran, Bobby Martinez, Pat O''Connell, Dane Reynolds, and Chris Ward, and professional snowboarder Shaun White live in southern California. Some of the world''s legendary surf spots are in southern California as well, including Trestles, Rincon, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, and Malibu, and it is second only to the island of Oahu in terms of famous surf breaks. Some of the world''s biggest extreme sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U.S. Open of Surfing are all in southern California. Southern California is also important to the world of yachting. The annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachting''s premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the America''s Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America''s Cup races during that time.

Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Professional teams that are located in the region include the Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles Clippers, Los Angeles Dodgers, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, San Diego Padres, Los Angeles Kings, Bakersfield Condors, Anaheim Ducks, Los Angeles Galaxy, Chivas USA, and San Diego Chargers. Southern California also is home to a number of popular NCAA sports programs such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs.

Southern California is culturally diverse and well known worldwide. Many tourists frequent the southern California coast for its popular beaches and the eastern desert for its dramatic open spaces.

Northern boundary of Southern CaliforniaCalifornia counties below the thirty sixth standard parallelThe famous Andaz West Hollywood Hotel on the Sunset Strip

"Southern California" is not a formal geographic designation, and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, California''s north-south midway point lies at exactly 37° 9'' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles (18 km) south of San Jose; however, this does not coincide with popular use of the term. When the state is divided into two areas (northern and southern California), the term "Southern California" usually refers to the ten southern-most counties of the state. This definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino counties. Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary.

Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California, and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be admitted to the Union as a free state, preventing southern California from becoming its own separate slave state.

Subsequently, Californios (dissatisfied with inequitable taxes and land laws) and pro-slavery southerners in the lightly populated "Cow Counties" of southern California attempted three times in the 1850s to achieve a separate statehood or territorial status separate from Northern California. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature and signed by the State governor John B. Weller. It was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 75% of voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado. This territory was to include all the counties up to the then much larger Tulare County (that included what is now Kings, most of Kern, and part of Inyo counties) and San Luis Obispo County. The proposal was sent to Washington, D.C. with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However, the secession crisis following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 led to the proposal never coming to a vote.

In 1900, the Los Angeles Times defined southern California as including "the seven counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura and Santa Barbara." In 1999, the Times added a newer county—Imperial—to that list.

The state is most commonly divided and promoted by its regional tourism groups as consisting of northern, central, and southern California regions. The two AAA Auto Clubs of the state, the California State Automobile Association and the Automobile Club of Southern California, choose to simplify matters by dividing the state along the lines where their jurisdictions for membership apply, as either northern or southern California, in contrast to the three-region point of view. Another influence is the geographical phrase South of the Tehachapis, which would split the southern region off at the crest of that transverse range, but in that definition, the desert portions of north Los Angeles County and eastern Kern and San Bernardino Counties would be included in the southern California region due to their remoteness from the central valley and interior desert landscape.

Population, Land Area & Population Density (07-01-2008 est.) County Ref. Population Land mi² Land km² Pop. /mi² Pop. /km²
Los Angeles County 70069862049000000009,862,049 70034060870000000004,060.87 700340608700000000010,517.61 70032428560000000002,428.56 7003242856000000000937.67
San Diego County 70063095313000000003,095,313 70034199890000000004,199.89 700341998900000000010,877.67 7002714560000000000714.56 7002714560000000000275.89
Orange County 70063010759000000003,010,759 7002789400000000000789.40 70027894000000000002,044.54 70033813980000000003,813.98 70033813980000000001,472.59
Riverside County 70062100516000000002,100,516 70037207370000000007,207.37 700372073700000000018,667.00 7002291440000000000291.44 7002291440000000000112.53
San Bernardino County 70062015355000000002,015,355 700420052500000000020,052.50 700420052500000000051,935.74 7002100500000000000100.50 700210050000000000038.80
Kern County 7005800458000000000800,458 70038140960000000008,140.96 700381409600000000021,084.99 700198319999999999998.32 700198319999999999937.96
Ventura County 7005797740000000000797,740 70031845300000000001,845.30 70031845300000000004,779.31 7002432310000000000432.31 7002432310000000000166.92
Santa Barbara County 7005405396000000000405,396 70032737010000000002,737.01 70032737010000000007,088.82 7002148120000000000148.12 700214812000000000057.19
San Luis Obispo County 7005265297000000000265,297 70033304320000000003,304.32 70033304320000000008,558.15 700180290000000000080.29 700180290000000000031.00
Imperial County 7005163972000000000163,972 70034174729999999994,174.73 700341747299999999910,812.50 700139280000000000039.28 700139280000000000015.17
Southern California 700722422614000000022,422,614 700456512350000000056,512.35 7004565123500000000146,366.31 7002396770000000000396.77 7002396770000000000153.19
California 700736756666000000036,756,666 7005155959340000000155,959.34 7005155959340000000403,932.84 7002235680000000000235.68 700223568000000000091.00
Urban landscape
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2011)

Southern California consists of a heavily developed urban environment, home to some of the largest urban areas in the state, along with vast areas that have been left undeveloped. It is the third most populated megalopolis in the United States, after the Great Lakes Megalopolis and the Northeastern megalopolis. Much of Southern California is famous for its large, spread-out, suburban communities and use of automobiles and highways. The dominant areas are Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego, and Riverside-San Bernardino, each of which is the center of its respective metropolitan area, composed of numerous smaller cities and communities. The urban area is also host to an international metropolitan region in the form of San Diego–Tijuana, created by the urban area spilling over into Baja California.

Traveling south on Interstate 5, the main gap to continued urbanization is Camp Pendleton. The cities and communities along Interstate 15 and Interstate 215 are so inter-related that Temecula and Murrieta have as much connection with the San Diego metropolitan area as they do with the Inland Empire. To the east, the United States Census Bureau considers the San Bernardino and Riverside County areas, Riverside-San Bernardino area as a separate metropolitan area from Los Angeles County. While many commute to L.A. and Orange Counties, there are some differences in development, as most of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties (the non-desert portions) were developed in the 1980s and 1990s. Newly developed exurbs formed in the Antelope Valley north of Los Angeles, the Victor Valley and the Coachella Valley with the Imperial Valley. Also, population growth was high in the Bakersfield-Kern County, Santa Maria and San Luis Obispo areas.

The Downtown Los Angeles skyline seen at sunset on an October day. At 1,018 feet (310 m), 73 floors, the U.S. Bank Tower stands as the West Coast''s tallest building since 1989.Natural landscapeProctor Valley in Chula VistaAutumn in Southern California.Main article: Geography of Southern California

Southern California consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country. The region spans from Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, into the large and small interior valleys, to the vast deserts of California.

Introductory categories include:
  • Category: Beaches of Southern California
  • Category: Mountain ranges of Southern California
  • Category: Rivers of Southern California
  • Category: Deserts of California
  • Category: Parks in Southern California
GeographySatellite view of southern California, including the Channel Islands

Southern California is also divided into:

  • the Coastal Region. densely populated with more affluence than inland areas. This region includes the coastal interior valleys west of the coastal mountains with all of Orange County and portions of San Diego, Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa Barbara, and San Luis Obispo counties
    • A related floristic province term is the Cismontane Region on the coastal side of the Transverse and Peninsular mountain ranges, with the term "southern California" popularly referring to this more populated and visited zone.
  • the Desert Region, larger and sparsely populated, with portions of Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Imperial, and San Diego counties. The division between the Coastal Region and the Inland Empire/Imperial Valley winds along the backs of the coastal mountain ranges such as the Santa Ana Mountains.
    • A related floristic province term is the Transmontane Region on the rain shadow side of the same mountain ranges, with the term "southern California" including this zone geographically and when distinguishing all the ''southland'' from northern California.
Geographic featuresView from La Jolla Cove in San Diego.Peaks in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, San Bernardino County.Yucca Valley after a winter storm in the Morongo Basin.Ocean Beach Sunset in San Diego.
  • Angeles National Forest (Los Angeles, San Bernardino, & Ventura Counties)
  • Antelope Hills (Kern County)
  • Antelope Valley (Los Angeles and Kern Counties)
  • Arroyo Seco (Los Angeles County)
  • Bacon Hills (Kern County)
  • Baldwin Hills (Los Angeles County)
  • Ballona Wetlands (Los Angeles County)
  • Big Bear Lake (San Bernardino County)
  • Bissell Hills (Kern County)
  • Black Hills (Kern County)
  • Bolsa Chica Estuary (Orange County)
  • Buena Vista Hills (Kern County)
  • Buena Vista Lake (Kern County)
  • Cajon Pass (San Bernardino County)
  • Calico Mountains (San Bernardino County)
  • Channel Islands (Santa Barbara, Ventura & Los Angeles Counties)
  • Chino Hills (Orange, Los Angeles, Riverside & San Bernardino Counties)
  • Coachella Valley (Riverside County)
  • Colorado Desert (San Bernardino, Riverside, Imperial, and San Diego Counties)
  • Colorado River (San Bernardino, Riverside & Imperial Counties, Baja California & Sonora)
  • Conejo Valley (Ventura County)
  • Cucamonga Valley (San Bernardino County)
  • Cuyamaca Mountains (San Diego County)
  • Death Valley (San Bernardino and Inyo Counties)
  • Diablo Range (Kern County)
  • Elk Hills (Kern County)
  • Elkhorn Hills (San Luis Obispo County)
  • El Paso Mountains (Kern County)
  • Greenhorn Mountains (Kern County)
  • High Desert (Los Angeles, Kern, Inyo, & San Bernardino Counties)
  • Horned Toad Hills (Kern County)
  • Imperial Valley (Imperial County)
  • Irish Hills (San Luis Obispo County)
  • In-Ko-Pah Mountains (San Diego County)
  • Inland Empire (Riverside, San Bernardino Counties)
  • Jacumba Mountains (San Diego County)
  • Jawbone Canyon (Kern County)
  • Kern River (Kern County)
  • La Jolla Cove (San Diego County)
  • Laguna Mountains (San Diego County)
  • Lake Arrowhead (San Bernardino County)
  • Lake Casitas (Ventura County)
  • Lake Castaic (Los Angeles County)
  • Lake Elsinore (Riverside County)
  • Lake Isabella (Kern County)
  • Lake Piru (Ventura County)
  • Lakeview Mountains (Riverside County)
  • Lake Webb (Kern County)
  • Little San Bernardino Mountains (Riverside & San Bernardino Counties)
  • Little Signal Hills (Kern County)
  • Los Angeles Basin (Los Angeles County)
  • Los Angeles River (Los Angeles County)
  • Los Padres National Forest (Kern, Los Angeles, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, & Ventura Counties)
  • Lost Hills (Kern County)
  • Low Desert (Imperial, San Diego, Riverside & San Bernardino Counties)
  • Mojave Desert (Los Angeles, Kern & San Bernardino Counties)
  • Mojave River (San Bernardino County)
  • New River (Imperial County, Mexicali Municipality)
  • Nine Sisters (San Luis Obispo County)
  • Ojai Valley (Ventura County)
  • Orange Coast (Orange County)
  • Oxnard Plain (Ventura County)
  • Palomar Mountain (San Diego County)
  • Palo Verde Valley (Riverside and Imperial Counties)
  • Palos Verdes Peninsula (Los Angeles County)
  • Panamint Range (Inyo County)
  • Peninsular Ranges (San Diego, Riverside, & Orange Counties)
  • Pleito Hills (Kern County)
  • Point Loma (San Diego County)
  • Point Mugu (Ventura County)
  • Point of Rocks (Kern County)
  • Pomona Valley (Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties)
  • Providence Mountains (San Bernardino County)
  • Puente Hills (Los Angeles County)
  • Pyramid Lake (Los Angeles County)
  • Rand Mountains (Kern County)
  • Rio Hondo (Los Angeles County)
  • Rosamond Hills (Kern County)
  • Saddleback Valley (Orange County)
  • Salton Sea (Imperial & Riverside Counties)
  • San Andreas Fault (All Counties)
  • San Bernardino Mountains (San Bernardino County)
  • San Bernardino National Forest (Riverside and San Bernardino Counties)
  • San Bernardino Valley (San Bernardino County)
  • San Diego Bay (San Diego County)
  • San Diego River (San Diego County)
  • San Emigdio Mountains (Los Angeles, Ventura, & Kern Counties)
  • San Fernando Valley (Los Angeles County)
  • San Gabriel Mountains (Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties)
  • San Gabriel River (Los Angeles County)
  • San Gabriel Valley (Los Angeles County)
  • San Jacinto Mountains (Riverside County)
  • San Jacinto River (Riverside County)
  • San Joaquin Valley (Kern County)
  • San Luis Rey River (San Diego County)
  • San Pedro Bay (Los Angeles County)
  • San Rafael Mountains (Santa Barbara County)
  • Santa Ana Mountains (Orange & Riverside Counties)
  • Santa Ana River (San Bernardino, Los Angeles & Orange County)
  • Santa Ana Valley (Orange County)
  • Santa Catalina Island (Los Angeles County)
  • Santa Clara River (Ventura County)
  • Santa Clara River Valley (Ventura County)
  • Santa Clarita Valley (Los Angeles County)
  • Santa Margarita River (Riverside, Orange & San Diego Counties)
  • Santa Monica Bay (Los Angeles County)
  • Santa Monica Mountains (Los Angeles & Ventura Counties)
  • Santa Rosa Mountains (Riverside, Orange & San Diego Counties)
  • Santa Susana Mountains (Los Angeles & Ventura Counties)
  • Santa Ynez Mountains (Santa Barbara County)
  • Santa Ynez Valley (Santa Barbara County)
  • Scodie Mountains (Kern County)
  • Sequoia National Forest (Kern County)
  • Shale Hills (Kern County)
  • Sierra Nevada (Kern County)
  • Sierra Pelona Mountains (Los Angeles and Kern Counties)
  • Simi Hills (Los Angeles & Ventura Counties)
  • Simi Valley (Ventura County)
  • Sweetwater River (San Diego County)
  • Tehachapi Mountains (Kern and Los Angeles Counties)
  • Tejon Hills (Kern County)
  • Temescal Mountains (Riverside County)
  • Telephone Hills (Kern County)
  • Temblor Range (Kern and San Luis Obispo Counties)
  • Tijuana River (San Diego County)
  • Topatopa Mountains (Ventura County)
  • Turtle Mountains (San Bernardino County)
  • Ventura River (Ventura County)
  • Victor Valley (San Bernardino County)
Geology EarthquakesOn August 26, 2012, southern California and western Arizona experienced a 5.3 magnitude earthquake and another one at 5.5. This map is the intensity of the 5.3 throughout southern California and Arizona.

Each year, the southern California area has about 10,000 earthquakes. Nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt. Only several hundred are greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about 15–20 are greater than magnitude 4.0.

On August 26, 2012 an earthquake struck. It was a swarm of over 200 events, two with magnitudes of 5.3 and 5.5. Many faults are able to produce a magnitude 6.7+ earthquake, such as the San Andreas Fault, which can produce a magnitude 8.0 event. Other faults include the San Jacinto Fault, the Puente Hills Fault, and the Elsinore Fault Zone.

Regions Divisions
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2010)
Salton Sea in the Coachella Valley.The Oceanside Pier on the San Diego County coast.

Southern California is divided culturally, politically, and economically into distinctive regions, each containing its own culture and atmosphere, anchored usually by a city with both national and sometimes global recognition, which are often the hub of economic activity for its respective region and being home to many tourist destinations. Each region is further divided into many culturally distinct areas but as a whole combine to create the southern California atmosphere.

  • Coastal Southern California
    • Southern Central Coast
    • Ventura County
      • Oxnard Plain
    • Los Angeles Basin
    • Orange County
    • San Diego County
  • Inland Southern California
    • Kern County
    • Imperial Valley
    • Inland Empire
      • San Bernardino County
        • High Desert (Section)*
        • Morongo Basin*
        • San Bernardino Valley
      • Riverside County
        • Coachella Valley*
        • Low Desert (Section)*
  • Deserts of California
    • High Desert*
      • Antelope Valley
      • Morongo Basin*
      • eastern Kern County
    • Low Desert*
      • Coachella Valley*
      • Lower Colorado River Valley
      • Imperial County
        • Imperial Valley
      • Palo Verde Valley

*Part of multiple regions

PopulaceDowntown San Bernardino

As of the 2010 United States Census, southern California has a population of 22,680,010. Despite a reputation for high growth rates, southern California''s rate grew less than the state average of 10.0% in the 2000s as California''s growth became concentrated in the northern part of the state due to a stronger, tech-oriented economy in the Bay Area and an emerging Greater Sacramento region.

Southern California consists of one Combined Statistical Area, eight Metropolitan Statistical Areas, one international metropolitan area, and multiple metropolitan divisions. The region is home to two extended metropolitan areas that exceed five million in population. These are the Greater Los Angeles Area at 17,786,419, and San Diego–Tijuana at 5,105,768. Of these metropolitan areas, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metropolitan area, Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area, and Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura metropolitan area form Greater Los Angeles; while the El Centro metropolitan area and San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos metropolitan area form the Southern Border Region. North of Greater Los Angeles are the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and Bakersfield metropolitan areas.

Cities See also: Largest cities in Southern California

Los Angeles (at 3.7 million people) and San Diego (at 1.3 million people), both in southern California, are the two largest cities in all of California (and two of the eight largest cities in the United States). In southern California there are also twelve cities with more than 200,000 residents and 34 cities over 100,000 in population. Many of southern California''s most developed cities lie along or in close proximity to the coast, with the exception of San Bernardino and Riverside.

  • Imperial
  • Kern
  • Los Angeles
  • Orange
  • Riverside
  • San Bernardino
  • San Diego
  • San Luis Obispo
  • Santa Barbara
  • Ventura
Economy Industries

Southern California''s economy is diverse and one of the largest in the United States. It is dominated and heavily dependent upon abundance of petroleum, as opposed to other regions where automobiles not nearly as dominant, the vast majority of transport runs on this fuel. Southern California is famous for tourism and Hollywood (film, television, and music). Other industries include software, automotive, ports, finance, tourism, biomedical, and regional logistics. The region was a leader in the housing bubble 2001–2007, and has been heavily impacted by the housing crash.

Since the 1920s, motion pictures, petroleum and aircraft manufacturing have been major industries. In one of the richest agricultural regions in the U.S., cattle and citrus were major industries until farmlands was turned into suburbs. Although military spending cutbacks have had an impact, aerospace continues to be a major factor.

Major central business districtsIrvine Taco Bell Headquarters

Southern California is home to many major business districts. Central business districts (CBD) include Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown San Diego, Downtown San Bernardino, Downtown Bakersfield, South Coast Metro and Downtown Riverside.

Within the Los Angeles Area are the major business districts of Downtown Burbank, Downtown Santa Monica, Downtown Glendale and Downtown Long Beach. Los Angeles itself has many business districts including the Downtown Los Angeles central business district as well as those lining the Wilshire Boulevard Miracle Mile including Century City, Westwood and Warner Center in the San Fernando Valley.

The San Bernardino-Riverside area maintains the business districts of Downtown San Bernardino, Hospitality Business/Financial Centre, University Town which are in San Bernardino and Downtown Riverside.

Orange County is a rapidly developing business center that includes Downtown Santa Ana, the South Coast Metro and Newport Center districts; as well as the Irvine business centers of The Irvine Spectrum, West Irvine, and international corporations headquartered at the University of California, Irvine. West Irvine includes the Irvine Tech Center and Jamboree Business Parks.

Downtown San Diego is the central business district of San Diego, though the city is filled with business districts. These include Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, Mission Valley, Rancho Bernardo, Sorrento Mesa, and University City. Most of these districts are located in Northern San Diego and some within North County regions.

Theme parks and waterparksDisneyland in Anaheim.

Los Angeles

  • Universal Studios Hollywood
  • Six Flags Magic Mountain
  • Six Flags Hurricane Harbor
  • Raging Waters San Dimas
  • Pacific Park
  • Dry Town Water Park

Orange County

  • Disneyland
  • Disney California Adventure
  • Knott''s Berry Farm
  • Knott''s Soak City

Riverside & San Bernardino

  • Castle Park
  • Wet''n''Wild Palm Springs
  • Splash Kingdom Waterpark
  • Scandia

San Diego

  • Legoland California
  • SeaWorld San Diego
  • Belmont Park
  • Aquatica San Diego
  • Legoland Waterpark
  • San Diego Zoo
Vinyard-Winery AVA districtsCalifornia wine AVA-American Viticultural Areas in southern California:
  • South Coast AVA
    • Cucamonga Valley AVA
    • Malibu-Newton Canyon AVA
    • Ramona Valley AVA
    • Saddle Rock-Malibu AVA
    • Temecula Valley AVA
  • Leona Valley AVA
  • Central Coast AVA
    • Arroyo Grande Valley AVA
    • Edna Valley AVA
    • San Pasqual Valley AVA
    • Santa Maria Valley AVA
    • Santa Ynez Valley AVA
    • Sta. Rita Hills AVA
    • York Mountain AVA
TransportationOne of the large LAX signs that greet visitors to LAX. This sign is at the Century Boulevard entrance to Los Angeles International AirportSee: Category: Transportation in Southern CaliforniaAirports

The following airports currently have regularly scheduled commercial service:

  • Los Angeles International Airport
  • San Diego International Airport
  • John Wayne Airport (Orange County)
  • LA/Ontario International Airport
  • Bob Hope Airport (Burbank)
  • Long Beach Airport
  • Palm Springs International Airport
  • Meadows Field (Bakersfield)
  • McClellan-Palomar Airport (Carlsbad)
  • San Luis Obispo County Regional Airport
  • Santa Maria Public Airport
  • Oxnard Airport
  • Imperial County Airport
Freeways and highways
This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia''s quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this section if you can. (May 2008)
Main articles: Southern California freeways and Category:Southern California freewaysI-10, 215 Interchange traffic, downtown San Bernardino. California State Routes Sign Freeways and State Route
Pacific Coast Highway (PCH) Lincoln Boulevard Sepulveda Boulevard Oxnard Boulevard Coast Highway Camino las Ramblas State Route 1
Angeles Crest Highway Glendale Freeway Santa Monica Boulevard Alvarado Street Glendale Boulevard State Route 2
Antelope Valley Freeway State Route 14
Waterman Avenue State Route 18
Rosemead Boulevard Lakewood Boulevard State Route 19
Seventh Street Garden Grove Freeway State Route 22
Decker Road Decker Canyon Road Mulholland Highway Westlake Boulevard State Route 23
Topanga Canyon Boulevard State Route 27
Ojai Freeway State Route 33
State Route 38
San Gabriel Canyon Road Azusa Avenue Whittier Boulevard Beach Boulevard State Route 39
Manchester Ave Manchester Boulevard Firestone Boulevard State Route 42
Terminal Island Freeway Seaside Avenue Vincent Thomas Bridge State Route 47
Soledad Freeway State Route 52
South Bay Freeway Filipino-American Highway State Route 54
Costa Mesa Freeway Newport Boulevard State Route 55
Ted Williams Freeway State Route 56
Orange Freeway State Route 57
Pomona Freeway Moreno Valley Freeway State Route 60
Foothill Boulevard E Street State Route 66
Julian Road San Vicente Freeway State Route 67
Corona Expressway Chino Valley Freeway State Route 71
Whittier Boulevard State Route 72
San Joaquin Hills Transportation Corridor (toll road) State Route 73
Ortega Highway Pines to Palms Highway State Route 74
San Diego-Coronado Bridge Silver Strand Boulevard State Route 75
Mission Avenue Pala Road Cuyamaca Highway State Route 76
Vista Freeway San Pasqual Valley Road State Route 78
Winchester Road Temecula Parkway Firefighter Steven Rucker Memorial Highway State Route 79
Euclid Avenue State Route 83
Indio Boulevard State Route 86
Marina Freeway Imperial Highway Richard Nixon Freeway State Route 90
Artesia Boulevard Gardena Freeway Artesia Freeway Riverside Freeway State Route 91
Martin Luther King Jr. Freeway Campo Road State Route 94
Hawthorne Boulevard State Route 107
Pasadena Freeway State Route 110
Grapefruit Boulevard State Route 111
Ronald Reagan Freeway State Route 118
La Mesa Freeway State Route 125
Santa Paula Freeway State Route 126
Eastern Transportation Corridor (toll road) Laguna Canyon Road State Route 133
Ventura Freeway State Route 134
State Route 138
Carbon Canyon Road Chino Hills Parkway State Route 142
Cabrillo Freeway State Route 163
Hollywood Freeway Highland Avenue State Route 170
Pierce Street State Route 195
Catalina Boulevard Canon Street Rosecrans Street State Route 209
Foothill Freeway State Route 210
Western Avenue State Route 213
Foothill Eastern Transportation Corridor (toll road) State Route 241
State Route 259 Freeway State Route 259
Balboa Avenue State Route 274
3rd/4th Street State Route 282
Cahuilla Road State Route 371
Otay Mesa Freeway Otay Mesa Road State Route 905
Note: highway segments with names listed in italics are surface streets and not freeways.
Interstate Highways Sign Freeways and Interstate
Golden State Freeway Santa Ana Freeway San Diego Freeway Montgomery Freeway Interstate 5
Ocean Beach Freeway Mission Valley Freeway Interstate 8
Santa Monica (Rosa Parks) Freeway Golden State Freeway San Bernardino Freeway Indio (Dr. June McCarroll) Freeway Blythe Freeway Interstate 10
Mojave Freeway Barstow Freeway Ontario Freeway Corona Freeway Temecula Valley Freeway Escondido Freeway Interstate 15
Century (Glenn Anderson) Freeway Interstate 105
Harbor Freeway Interstate 110
Foothill Freeway Interstate 210
Barstow Freeway San Bernardino Freeway Moreno Valley Freeway Escondido Freeway Interstate 215
San Diego Freeway Interstate 405
San Gabriel River Freeway Interstate 605
Long Beach Freeway Interstate 710
Jacob Dekema Freeway Interstate 805
Future Interstate 905 Interstate 905
U.S. Highway system Sign Freeways and US Route
U.S. Route 6
U.S. Route 95
Ventura Freeway Hollywood Freeway Santa Ana Freeway El Camino Real U.S. Route 101
U.S. Route 395

Public transportationSee: Category: Public transportation in Southern California
  • Metrolink
  • Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
  • San Diego trolley and San Diego County MTS
  • Orange County Transportation Authority
  • Omnitrans (southwestern San Bernardino County)
  • Golden Empire Transit (Bakersfield)
  • Santa Barbara MTD
  • San Luis Obispo Regional Transit Authority
  • Gold Coast Transit (Ventura County)
  • North County Transit District (northern San Diego County)
  • San Diego Coaster (Oceanside to San Diego)
  • Big Blue Bus (Santa Monica)
  • Riverside Transit Agency (western Riverside County)
CommunicationMap of some major area codes in Greater Los AngelesTelephone area codes
  • 213 – Downtown Los Angeles
  • 323 – Doughnut-shaped area surrounding downtown, including Hollywood, Mid-Wilshire, East Los Angeles and South Los Angeles
  • 310 – West Los Angeles, Santa Monica, Inglewood, South Bay and Catalina Island
  • 424 – Overlay with 310
  • 442 – Overlay with 760
  • 562 – Long Beach and the Gateway Cities
  • 619 – San Diego including downtown, East County San Diego and the South Bay
  • 626 – Pasadena, San Gabriel Valley and Covina Valley
  • 657 – Overlay with 714
  • 661 – Bakersfield, Santa Clarita, Antelope Valley and California City
  • 714 – Santa Ana, Anaheim, Huntington Beach and northern Orange County
  • 760 – Oceanside, Escondido, Palm Springs, El Centro, Victorville, Barstow, Ridgecrest, Hesperia, Apple Valley, Blythe, Adelanto and Indio
  • 805 – Santa Barbara, Ventura and San Luis Obispo Counties
  • 818 – San Fernando Valley, Glendale and Burbank.
  • 858 – Northern San Diego (including La Jolla) and its suburbs (including Del Mar and Poway)
  • 909 – Southwestern San Bernardino County, eastern Los Angeles County, and very small portions of northwestern Riverside County
  • 949 – Southern Orange County (Irvine, Newport Beach, Laguna Niguel & San Clemente)
  • 951 – Riverside, Temecula and western Riverside County
Colleges and universities Main article: List of colleges and universities in Southern California Parks and recreation areas
  • Numerous parks provide recreation and open-space, some locations include:
  • National Park Service
    • Channel Islands National Park
    • Death Valley National Park
    • Joshua Tree National Park
    • Mojave National Preserve
    • Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area
  • Major State Parks – including:
    • Anza-Borrego Desert State Park
    • Cuyamaca Rancho State Park
    • Chino Hills State Park
    • Fort Tejon State Historic Park
    • Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area
    • Mount San Jacinto State Park
    • Malibu Creek State Park
    • Red Rock Canyon State Park (California)
    • Topanga State Park
  • Major State Historic Parks – including:
    • California Citrus State Historic Park
    • El Presidio de Santa Barbara State Historic Park
    • La Purísima Mission State Historic Park
    • Los Encinos State Historic Park
    • Old Town San Diego State Historic Park
    • Rancho Los Encinos
    • Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park
    • Tule Elk State Natural Reserve
    • Watts Towers
    • Will Rogers State Historic Park
Sports See also: Freeway Series, Lakers–Clippers rivalry and Sports in California § Northern California–Southern California rivalry Major league sports teams in SoCal Team Sport League Venue
Los Angeles Angels Baseball Major League Baseball Angel Stadium of Anaheim
Los Angeles Dodgers Dodger Stadium
San Diego Padres PETCO Park
Los Angeles Clippers Basketball National Basketball Association Staples Center
Los Angeles Lakers
San Diego Chargers Football National Football League Qualcomm Stadium
Anaheim Ducks Ice hockey National Hockey League Honda Center
Los Angeles Kings Staples Center
Los Angeles Galaxy Soccer Major League Soccer StubHub Center

Los Angeles is the largest metropolitan area in the United States without a National Football League team. From 2005 to 2014, there were two Major League Soccer teams in Los Angeles — the LA Galaxy and Chivas USA — that both played at the StubHub Center and were local rivals. However, Chivas were suspended following the 2014 MLS season, with a second MLS team scheduled to return in 2017.

College sports are also popular in Southern California. The UCLA Bruins and the USC Trojans both field teams in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 conference, and there is a longtime rivalry between the schools.

Rugby is also a growing sport in Southern California, particularly at the high school level, with increasing numbers of schools adding rugby as an official school sport.

Tags:ABC, American, Arizona, Border, Busiest, California, Channel Islands, Colorado, Communication, Costa Mesa, Disney, Gabriel, Geography, Gold, Grapefruit, Hawaii, Hollywood, Honda, Legislature, Lincoln, Long Beach, Los, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Galaxy, Los Angeles Times, Malibu, Manchester, Metropolitan, Mexican, Mexico, Newport, Newport Beach, Newton, Nixon, Occidental, Orange Coast, Pacific, Pacific Ocean, Rafael, Rey, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Rugby, Sacramento, San Diego, San Jose, Santa Monica, SoCal, Sony, Southern California, Sport, Thomas, Tijuana, Transit, UCLA, US, USA, United States, Universal, University of California, Washington, Wikipedia, Zoo

Southern California Media

Southern California Terms

    Southern California Articles

    Southern California Your Feedback