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Sardes Definition

Sardes modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times. Its importance was due, first to its military strength, secondly to its situation on an important highway leading from the interior to the Aegean coast, and thirdly to its commanding the wide and fertile plain of the Hermus.The earliest reference to Sardis is in The Persians of Aeschylus (472 BC); in the Iliad the name Hyde seems to be given to the city of the Maeonian (i.e. Lydian) chiefs, and in later times Hyde was said to be the older name of Sardis, or the name of its citadel. It is, however, more probable that Sardis was not the original capital of the Maeonians, but that it became so amid the changes which produced the powerful Lydian empire of the 8th century BCAfter c.547, the Persian king Cyrus the Great captured Sardes and made it the western capital of his Achaemenid Empire. From here, the Persians ruled the Yunan: notorious pirates and clever salesmen from the west, which are better known to us as the Ionians or Greeks.At the beginning of the fifth century, the Ionians revolted and destroyed the lower part of Sardes. The citadel remained un-captured and the Persians were able to retaliate: many Greeks who had taken part in the raid, perished on their way home (Herodotus, Histories, 5.99-102), and the Persians brought the war to the Greek homeland in the years 492-479.Eventually, their expedition forces were defeated, but at least, the Greeks recognized that they should leave Sardes to the Persians and during the next century and a half, Sardes was the place from which gold was sent to the Yunan, who were thus divided and controlled. Diplomatic control could be even more direct: in 387/386, Sardes was the place where the Persian nobleman Tiribazus dictated the terms of the King's Peace to the Greeks (Xenophon, Hellenica, 5.1.30).The city, which was connected with the Persian heartland by the age-old Royal Road, is not very well-known. It was the capital of one of the main Satrapies, and we know that there was a palace on the citadel.Under the emperor Tiberius, in AD 17, Sardes was destroyed by an earthquake; but it was rebuilt and became one of the great cities of western Asia Minor until the later Byzantine period.The early Lydian kingdom was far advanced in the industrial arts and Sardis was the chief seat of its manufactures. The most important of these trades was the manufacture and dyeing of delicate woolen stuffs and carpets. The stream Pactolus which flowed through the market-place "carried golden sands" in early antiquity, in reality gold dust out of Mt. Tmolus; later, trade and the organization of commerce continued to be sources of great wealth. After Constantinople became the capital of the East, a new road system grew up connecting the provinces with the capital. Sardis then lay rather apart from the great lines of communication and lost some of its importance. It still, however, retained its titular supremacy and continued to be the seat of the metropolitan bishop of the province of Lydia, formed in AD 295. It is enumerated as third, after Ephesus and Smyrna, in the list of cities of the Thracesion thema given by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century; but over the next four centuries i (Wikipedia) - Sardis   (Redirected from Sardes) This article is about the ancient Lydian city. For others, see Sardis (disambiguation).
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Sardis Alternate name Location Region Coordinates Type History Abandoned Cultures Site notes Excavation dates Archaeologists Condition Ownership Public access
Σάρδεις (Greek)
The gymnasium of Sardis
Shown within Turkey
Sart, Manisa Province, Turkey
38°29′18″N 28°02′25″E / 38.48833°N 28.04028°E / 38.48833; 28.04028Coordinates: 38°29′18″N 28°02′25″E / 38.48833°N 28.04028°E / 38.48833; 28.04028
Around 1402 AD
Lydian, Persian, Greek, Roman
1910–1914, 1922, 1958–present
Howard Crosby Butler, G.M.A. Hanfmann, Crawford H. Greenewalt, jr., Nicholas Cahill

Sardis (/ˈsɑrdɪs/) or Sardes (/ˈsɑrdiːz/; Lydian: Sfard; Ancient Greek: Σάρδεις Sardeis; Old Persian:

Tags:Achaemenid, Achaemenid Empire, Asia, Asia Minor, Byzantine, Constantinople, Cyrus, Cyrus the Great, Greek, Herodotus, Lydia, Old Persian, Persian, Roman, Sardes, Sardis, Satrapies, Tiberius, Turkey, Wikipedia, Xenophon

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