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Updated:Sunday 12th October 2014

Samarkand Definition

Samarkand literally meaning "Stone Fort" or "Rock Town" is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia, it was known as Maracanda under Achaemenid Empire. It was an important point on the Silk Road from China to Europe until its destruction by Chengiz Khan in 1220. Samarkand became the capital of Teimur Lang in 1370; he made it the most important economic and cultural centre in the region. The city is most noted for its central position on the Silk Road between China and the West.Founded circa 700 BC by the Persians, Samarkand has been one of the main centers of Persian civilization from its early days. It was already the capital of the Sogdian satrapy under the Achaemenid Empire.Although Samarkand is a Persian-speaking region, it was not united politically with Iran most of the times between the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire and the Arab conquest, except at the time of the Sassanid Empire.• Samarkand was sacked by the Mongols under Genghis Khan in 1220.• In 1365, a revolt against Mongol control occurred in Samarkand.• In 1499 the Uzbek Turks took control of Samarkand.• From 1784, Samarkand was ruled by the emirs of Bukhara.• The city came under Russian rule in 1868.• In 1886 the city became the capital of the newly formed Samarkand Oblast of Russian Turkestan.• It became the capital of the Uzbek SSR in 1925 before being replaced by Tashkent in 1930. (Wikipedia) - Samarkand Samarkand Uzbek: Samarqand, Самарқанд Country Province Settled Government  • Type  • Hakim (Mayor) Area  • Total Elevation Population (2008)  • Total Time zone Website
Top: Mirzo Ulugbek Street and Samarkand International Airport. Middle: Gur-e Amir and Samarkand Railway Station. Bottom: Registan Square and Central Park.
SamarkandLocation in Uzbekistan
Coordinates: 39°42′N 66°59′E / 39.700°N 66.983°E / 39.700; 66.983
Samarqand Province
5th century BC
City Administration
Akbar Shukurov
108 km2 (42 sq mi)
702 m (2,303 ft)

Samarkand (Tajik: Samarqand Самарқанд; Persian: سمرقند‎; Russian: Самарканд from Sogdian: "Stone Fort" or "Rock Town"), alternatively Samarqand or Samarcand, traditionally was the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. It is now the nation''s third largest, after fast-growing Namangan in the Ferghana Valley. The city is most noted for its central position on the Silk Road between China and the West, and for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane) and is the site of his mausoleum (the Gur-e Amir). The Bibi-Khanym Mosque (a modern replica) remains one of the city''s most notable landmarks. The Registan was the ancient center of the city. The city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts: embroidery, gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics, carving and painting on wood.

In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures.


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