Google Chrome

گوگل کروم

ID:16386 Section: History of the Internet

Updated:Monday 26th January 2015

Google Chrome Definition

(Wikipedia) - Google Chrome This article is about the web browser. For the operating system, see Chrome OS. Google Chrome Developer(s) Initial release Stable release Preview release Development status Written in Operating system Engines Platform Available in Type License Website
Google Inc.
September 2, 2008 (2008-09-02)
Windows, OS X, Linux

40.0.2214.91 (January 21, 2015; 5 days ago (2015-01-21))

Android (ARM, x86)

40.0.2214.89 (January 21, 2015; 5 days ago (2015-01-21))

iOS40.0.2214.69 (January 20, 2015; 6 days ago (2015-01-20))

41.0.2272.16 (January 22, 2015; 4 days ago (2015-01-22))


41.0.2272.12 (January 20, 2015; 6 days ago (2015-01-20))

Beta for Android40.0.2214.45 (December 17, 2014; 40 days ago (2014-12-17))
Android (4.0 and later) iOS (7.0 or later) Linux (+GCC v4.6 & +GTK v2.24) OS X (10.6 and later) Windows (XP SP2 and later)
Blink (WebKit on iOS), V8
x86, x64, 32-bit ARM (ARMv7)
53 languages
Web browser, mobile web browser
Freeware under Google Chrome Terms of Service

Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google. It used the WebKit layout engine until version 27 and, with the exception of its iOS releases, from version 28 and beyond uses the WebKit fork Blink. It was first released as a beta version for Microsoft Windows on September 2, 2008, and as a stable public release on December 11, 2008.

As of January 2015, StatCounter estimates that Google Chrome has a 51% worldwide usage share of web browsers, indicating that it is the most widely used web browser in the world.

Google releases the majority of Chrome''s source code as an open-source project Chromium. A notable component that is not open source is the built-in Adobe Flash Player.

  • 1 History
    • 1.1 Announcement
    • 1.2 Public release
    • 1.3 Development
    • 1.4 Release history
  • 2 Features
    • 2.1 Bookmarks and settings synchronisation
    • 2.2 Web standards support
    • 2.3 Security
      • 2.3.1 Security vulnerabilities
      • 2.3.2 Malware blocking
      • 2.3.3 Plugins
    • 2.4 Privacy
      • 2.4.1 Privacy mode
      • 2.4.2 User tracking
      • 2.4.3 Do Not Track
    • 2.5 Speed
    • 2.6 Stability
    • 2.7 User interface
    • 2.8 Desktop shortcuts and apps
      • 2.8.1 Chrome Web Store
    • 2.9 Extensions
    • 2.10 Themes
    • 2.11 Automatic web page translation
    • 2.12 Release channels and updates
    • 2.13 Color management
  • 3 Platforms
    • 3.1 Android version
    • 3.2 Chrome OS
    • 3.3 iOS version
    • 3.4 Windows 8 version
    • 3.5 Windows XP
  • 4 Usage
    • 4.1 Enterprise deployment
    • 4.2 Chromium
  • 5 Developing for Chrome
  • 6 See also
  • 7 Notes
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

History See also: History of Google

Google CEO Eric Schmidt opposed the development of an independent web browser for six years. He stated that "at the time, Google was a small company," and he did not want to go through "bruising browser wars." After co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Mozilla Firefox developers and built a demonstration of Chrome, Schmidt admitted that "It was so good that it essentially forced me to change my mind."


The release announcement was originally scheduled for September 3, 2008, and a comic by Scott McCloud was to be sent to journalists and bloggers explaining the features within the new browser. Copies intended for Europe were shipped early and German blogger Philipp Lenssen of Google Blogoscoped made a scanned copy of the 38-page comic available on his website after receiving it on September 1, 2008. Google subsequently made the comic available on Google Books and mentioned it on their official blog along with an explanation for the early release.

Public releaseAn early version of Chromium for Linux, explaining the difference between Chrome and Chromium

The browser was first publicly released for Microsoft Windows (XP and later versions) on September 2, 2008 in 43 languages, officially a beta version.

On the same day, a CNET news item drew attention to a passage in the Terms of Service statement for the initial beta release, which seemed to grant to Google a license to all content transferred via the Chrome browser. This passage was inherited from the general Google terms of service. Google responded to this criticism immediately by stating that the language used was borrowed from other products, and removed this passage from the Terms of Service.

Chrome quickly gained about 1% usage share. After the initial surge, usage share dropped until it hit a low of 0.69% in October 2008. It then started rising again and by December 2008, Chrome again passed the 1% threshold.

In early January 2009, CNET reported that Google planned to release versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux in the first half of the year. The first official Chrome OS X and Linux developer previews were announced on June 4, 2009 with a blog post saying they were missing many features and were intended for early feedback rather than general use.

In December 2009, Google released beta versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux. Google Chrome 5.0, announced on May 25, 2010, was the first stable release to support all three platforms.

Chrome was one of the twelve browsers offered to European Economic Area users of Microsoft Windows in 2010.


Chrome was assembled from 25 different code libraries from Google and third parties such as Mozilla''s Netscape Portable Runtime, Network Security Services, NPAPI, Skia Graphics Engine, SQLite, and a number of other open-source projects. The V8 JavaScript virtual machine was considered a sufficiently important project to be split off (as was Adobe/Mozilla''s Tamarin) and handled by a separate team in Denmark coordinated by Lars Bak at Aarhus. According to Google, existing implementations were designed "for small programs, where the performance and interactivity of the system weren''t that important", but web applications such as Gmail "are using the web browser to the fullest when it comes to DOM manipulations and JavaScript", and therefore would significantly benefit from a JavaScript engine that could work faster.

Chrome uses the Blink rendering engine to display web pages. Based on WebKit, Blink only uses WebKit''s "WebCore" components while substituting all other components, such as its own multi-process architecture in place of WebKit''s native implementation.

Chrome is internally tested with unit testing, "automated user interface testing of scripted user actions", fuzz testing, as well as WebKit''s layout tests (99% of which Chrome is claimed to have passed), and against commonly accessed websites inside the Google index within 20–30 minutes.

Google created Gears for Chrome, which added features for web developers typically relating to the building of web applications, including offline support. Google phased out Gears as the same functionality became available in the HTML5 standards.

On January 11, 2011 the Chrome product manager, Mike Jazayeri, announced that Chrome would remove H.264 video codec support for its HTML5 player, citing the desire to bring Google Chrome more in line with the currently available open codecs available in the Chromium project, which Chrome is based on. Despite this, on November 6, 2012, Google released a version of Chrome on Windows which added hardware-accelerated H.264 video decoding. In October 2013, Cisco announced that it was open-sourcing its H.264 codecs and will cover all fees required.

On February 7, 2012, Google launched Google Chrome Beta for Android 4.0 devices. On many new devices with Android 4.1 and later preinstalled, Chrome is the default browser.

On April 3, 2013, Google announced that it would fork the WebCore component of WebKit to form its own layout engine known as Blink. The aim of Blink will be to give Chrome''s developers more freedom in implementing its own changes to the engine, and to allow its codebase to be trimmed of code that is unnecessary or unimplemented by Chrome.

Release history Click "show" to expand the release history table, or click the "edit" link within the title bar below to update the table. Release history   
Discontinued Stable Channel Beta Channel Dev Channel
Major version Release date Layout engine V8 engine version Significant changes
0.2.149 2008-09-02 WebKit 522 0.3
  • First release.
0.3.154 2008-10-29
  • Improved plugin performance and reliability.
  • Spell checking for input fields.
  • Improved web proxy performance and reliability.
  • Tab and window management updates.
0.4.154 2008-11-24 WebKit 525
  • Bookmark manager with import and export support.
  • Privacy section added to the application options.
  • New blocked popup notification.
1.0.154 2008-12-11 WebKit 528
  • First stable release.
2.0.172 2009-05-24 WebKit 530 0.4
  • 35% faster JavaScript on the SunSpider benchmark.
  • Mouse wheel support.
  • Full-screen mode.
  • Full-page zoom.
  • Form auto-fill.
  • Sort bookmarks by title.
  • Tab docking to browser and desktop edges.
  • Basic Greasemonkey support.
3.0.195 2009-10-12 WebKit 532 1.2
  • New "new tab" page for improved customization.
  • 25% faster JavaScript.
  • HTML5 video and audio tag support.
  • Lightweight theming.
4.0.249 2010-01-25 WebKit 532.5 1.3
  • Extensions.
  • Bookmark synchronization.
  • Enhanced developer tools.
  • Improved HTML5 support.
  • Performance improvements.
  • Full ACID3 pass.
  • HTTP byte range support.
  • Experimental new anti-reflected-XSS feature called "XSS Auditor".
4.1.249 2010-03-17
  • Translate infobar.
  • New privacy features.
  • Disabled XSS Auditor.
5.0.375 2010-05-21 WebKit 533 2.1
  • Browser preference synchronizing.
  • Increased HTML5 support (Geolocation API, App Cache, web sockets, and file drag-and-drop).
  • Revamped bookmark manager.
  • Adobe Flash Player integrated.
  • First stable releases for Mac OS X, 32 bit Linux, and 64 bit Linux.
6.0.472 2010-09-02 WebKit 534.3 2.2
  • Updated and more streamlined UI with simplified Omnibox.
  • New tab page.
  • Merged menu buttons.
  • Form auto-fill.
  • Expanded synchronization support to include extensions and auto-fill data.
  • Support for WebM videos.
  • Built-in PDF support (disabled by default).
7.0.517 2010-10-21 WebKit 534.7 2.3.11
  • Implemented HTML5 parsing algorithm.
  • File API.
  • Directory upload via input tag.
  • OS X version gained AppleScript support for UI automation.
  • Late binding enabled for SSL sockets: high priority SSL requests are now always sent to the server first.
  • New options for managing cookies.
  • Updated New Tab page to enable featuring of web applications.
8.0.552 2010-12-02 WebKit 534.10 2.4.9
  • Chrome Web Store.
  • Built-in PDF viewer that works inside Chrome''s sandbox for increased security.
  • Expanded synchronization support to include web applications.
  • Improved plug-in handling.
  • This release added "about:flags" to showcase experimental features such as Chrome Instant, side tabs on Windows, tabbed settings, Click to Play , background web applications, Remoting , Disable outdated plug-ins , XSS Auditor , Cloud Print Proxy , GPU-accelerated compositing, WebGL support for the canvas element, and a "tab overview" mode (like Exposé) for OS X.
9.0.597 2011-02-03 WebKit 534.13 2.5.9
  • WebGL enabled by default.
  • Adobe Flash sandboxing on Windows and Chrome Instant (a la Google Instant) option.
  • WebP support.
  • New flags: print preview, GPU-accelerated compositing, GPU-accelerated Canvas 2D, Google Native Client, CRX-less Web Apps, Web page prerendering, experimental Extension APIs, disable hyperlink auditing.
10.0.648 2011-03-08 WebKit 534.16 3.0.12
  • Google Cloud Print sign-in interface enabled by default.
  • Partially implemented sandboxing of the GPU process.
  • Faster JavaScript performance due to incorporation of Crankshaft, an improved compiler for V8.
  • Settings pages that open in a tab, rather than a dialog box.
  • Malware reporting and disabling outdated plugins.
  • Password sync.
  • GPU accelerated video.
  • Background WebApps.
  • webNavigation extension API.
11.0.696 2011-04-27 WebKit 534.24 3.1.8
  • HTML5 Speech Input API.
  • Updated icon.
12.0.742 2011-06-07 WebKit 534.30 3.2.10
  • Hardware accelerated 3D CSS.
  • New Safe Browsing protection against downloading malicious files.
  • Ability to delete Flash cookies from inside Chrome.
  • Launch Apps by name from the Omnibox.
  • Integrated Sync into new settings pages.
  • Improved screen reader support.
  • New warning when hitting Command-Q on Mac.
  • New flags: P2P API.
  • Existing tab on foreground on open.
  • Experimental new tab page.
  • Add grouping to tab context menu.
  • Run PPAPI Flash in the renderer process.
  • Multiple Profiles.
  • Removed Google Gears.
  • Print and Save buttons in the PDF viewer.
13.0.782 2011-08-02 WebKit 535.1 3.3.10
  • Instant Pages (pre-rendering of Web pages).
  • Native print interface and preview (Linux and Windows only).
  • Experimental new tab page.
  • Experimental Restrict Instant To Search option.
14.0.835 2011-09-16 3.4.14
  • Native Client (NaCl) enabled for apps in the Chrome Web Store.
  • Web Audio API.
  • Additional Mac OS X Lion feature support.
  • Sync Encryption for all data.
  • Print preview on Mac.
  • Validation of HTTPS sites.
  • Experimental Web Request extension API.
  • Experimental Content Settings extension API.
15.0.874 2011-10-25 WebKit 535.2 3.5.10
  • Faster print preview.
  • Redesigned new tab page on by default.
  • JavaScript fullscreen API enabled by default.
  • Inline installation of Chrome Web Store items by verified sites.
  • Omnibox History synchronization.
  • Switched to FFmpeg native VP8 decoder.
  • Extensions integrated into settings pages.
  • GPU Accelerated Canvas 2D disabled.
16.0.912 2011-12-13 WebKit 535.7 3.6.6
  • Multiple profiles on by default.
  • Optional permissions in Chrome extensions, so the user can opt-in or opt-out of the optional permissions at installation time.
  • Experimental support for side tabs was removed.
17.0.963 2012-02-08 WebKit 535.11 3.7.12
  • Updated Omnibox prerendering of pages.
  • Download scanning protection.
  • New extensions APIs.
  • Improved History tab.
  • Removal of "+" symbol from the "new tab" button.
  • Limited support for changing user agent strings.
  • Adjustable margins in print preview.
  • Search engine synchronization.
  • Disabled GAIA profile info.
18.0.1025 2012-03-28 2012-06-27 (Android ARM) 2012-09-26 (18.0.1026, Android x86) WebKit 535.19 3.8.9
  • Hardware-accelerated Canvas2D graphics.
  • WebGL without the need of 3D graphics hardware through the software rasterizer SwiftShader.
  • Brighter "new tab" button.
19.0.1084 2012-05-15 2012-06-28 (iOS) WebKit 536.5 3.9.24
  • Access tabs between devices.
  • Reorganized and searchable settings interface.
  • Better spell check by using the Google search engine spell checker.
  • Web Store link to the bottom of New Tab page.
  • Experimental JavaScript Harmony (ECMAScript 6) support.
  • Experimental Web Intents API.
20.0.1132 2012-06-26 WebKit 536.10 3.10.6
  • Experimental touch friendly UI adjustments. Context menus have extra vertical padding between items.
  • New tab button is bigger and wider
21.0.1180 2012-07-31 2012-08-22 (iOS) WebKit 537.1 3.11.10
  • Media Stream API (getUserMedia) enabled by default. (E.g. webcam access via JavaScript.)
  • Gamepad API prototype available by default.
  • Support for (pointer) and (hover) CSS media queries so sites can optimize their UI for touch when touch-screen support is available.
  • HTML5 audio/video and WebAudio now support 24-bit PCM wave files.
22.0.1229 2012-09-25 WebKit 537.4 3.12.19
  • New-style packaged apps are enabled by default.
  • New menu icon, replacing the wrench icon.
  • Support for TLS 1.1.
  • Support for color management ICC v2 profiles by default.
23.0.1271 2012-11-06 2012-11-28 (iOS) WebKit 537.11 3.13.7
  • Do Not Track preference
  • Hardware video acceleration with 25% more efficient power consumption in some scenarios
  • Manager for site permission control
  • New icon for Chrome Web Store when opening new tab
  • PPAPI Flash Player (or Pepper-based Flash Player) replaced the NPAPI Flash Player on Mac also.
24.0.1312 2013-01-10 WebKit 537.17 3.14.5
  • Support for MathML.
  • The HTML5 datalist element now supports suggesting a date and time.
  • Experimental support for CSS custom filters.
25.0.1364 2013-02-21 2013-02-27 (Android) 2013-03-04 (iOS) WebKit 537.22 3.15.11
  • Support for Opus audio
  • Support for VP9 video
  • Silent installs of external extensions are now disabled by default.
  • Web Speech API
  • Encrypted omnibox search (https)
  • Native Client on ARM
  • Disabled MathML support for the time being.

Android version (update from 18):

  • Newer V8 JavaScript engine
  • Audio now continues to play while Chrome is in the background
  • Support for pausing audio in Chrome when phone is in use
26.0.1410 2013-03-26 2013-04-03 (Android) 2013-04-09 (iOS) WebKit 537.31 3.16.14
  • Improved spell checker (grammar and homonym checking)
  • Desktop shortcuts for multiple users (profiles) on Windows
  • Asynchronous DNS resolver on Mac and Linux

Android version:

  • Autofill and password sync
  • Performance and stability improvements
27.0.1453 2013-05-21 2013-05-22 (Android) 2013-06-03 (iOS) WebKit 537.36 3.17.6
  • Resource handling optimized for faster page loads.
  • Improved Omnibox predictions and spelling correction.
  • syncFileSystem API for Google Drive data synchronization.
  • Stop packaging Manifest version 1.0 extensions.

Android version:

  • Fullscreen on phones (scrolling down the page makes the toolbar disappear).
  • Simpler searching (the query stays visible in the omnibox, making it easier to edit)
  • Client-side certificate support
  • Tab history on tablets
  • "A ton of stability and performance fixes"
28.0.1500 2013-06-17 (Linux) 2013-07-09 (OS X and Windows) 2013-07-10 (Android) 2013-07-17 (iOS) Blink 537.36 WebKit 537.36 (on iOS) 3.18.5
  • Replaced layout engine with Blink, a fork of WebKit on all platforms besides iOS.
  • Faster page loads with the new Blink threaded HTML parser.
  • Rich Notifications and Notification Center (HTML-based notifications deprecated).
  • Major improvements to the asm.js benchmark performances.
  • Support for the CSS :unresolved pseudoclass for Custom Elements.
  • Support for the CSS @supports conditional blocks to test for property:value pairs.

Android version:

  • Fullscreen API support (fullscreen browsing on tablets).
  • Experimental WebGL, Web Audio, WebRTC support behind flags.
  • Built-in translation

iOS version:

  • Improved interoperability with many other Google Apps
  • Voice Search enhancements
  • Fullscreen for iPad
  • Data usage savings (rolling out over time)
  • Access to browser history
29.0.1547 2013-08-20 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2013-08-21 (Android) 2013-09-12 (iOS) Blink 537.36 3.19.18
  • Support for VP9 final
  • Support for TLS 1.2
  • Preliminary QUIC support
  • Improved Omnibox suggestions based on the recency of visited sites
  • Ability to reset user profile back to its original state
  • New apps and extensions APIs

Android version:

  • WebRTC support
  • WebAudio support
  • Improved scrolling responsiveness and visual indication when scrolling to the top or bottom of a page
  • Startup performance and stability improvements
  • New color picker user interface for web forms
  • Support for Google''s experimental data compression service (comparable to Opera Turbo) that lets Google servers quickly read and optimize a Web page for mobile devices, then transmit it to the smartphone using Google''s SPDY network technology.
  • Rudimentary tab groups implemented

iOS version:

  • Get back to Search Results faster
  • Data cost savings enhancements (rolled out incrementally)
  • Voice search pronoun support (e.g. queries like: “Who is the president of the United States?” followed by “Who is his wife?”)
  • Improvements to Single Sign On with other Google Apps
  • Support for WebP image format
30.0.1599 2013-09-18 (iOS) 2013-10-01 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2013-10-02 (Android) Blink 537.36 3.20.17
  • New image context menu item: "Search Google for this image".
  • New Chrome Apps APIs: webview.request, media gallery write support and downloads
  • New platform features (both in desktop and mobile): support for the WebRTC Device Enumeration API, allowing users to change their microphones and/or camera on the fly without having to restart the WebRTC call; DevTools now supports CSS source maps; Chrome will now match the behavior of IE and not honor the Refresh header or tags when the URL to be refreshed to has a javascript: scheme;

Android version:

  • New gesture: swipe horizontally across the top toolbar to quickly switch tabs.
  • New gesture: drag vertically down from the toolbar to enter into the tab switcher view.
  • New gesture: drag down from the menu to open the menu and select wanted item without having to lift finger.
  • WebGL is enabled by default on high-end devices
  • DeviceMotion (device acceleration and rotation rates) events
  • Media Source Extension is enabled on Android 4.1+
  • Two new experimental features behind a flag: Web Speech API (recognition) and the Vibration API

iOS version:

  • New look and feature enhancements for iOS7
  • Improvements to Fullscreen behavior especially on iPad (iOS7 only)
  • New Settings UI
  • Maps and email links launch the Google Maps and Gmail apps (if installed) automatically. You can change your preference in Settings
  • Stability / security improvements and bug fixes
31.0.1650 2013-11-12 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2013-11-14 (Android) 2013-11-20 (iOS) Blink 537.36 3.21.18
  • Payment requestAutocomplete() on Chrome for Android, Windows, Chrome OS
  • PNaCl on desktop versions of Chrome
  • New Chrome Apps APIs: With URL handlers for apps, Chrome App developers can now specify URLs to be handled by a Chrome App. For example, a document link on a website could open a document editor Chrome App. This gives users more seamless entry points into their favorite Chrome Apps.
  • Directory access for Apps allows Chrome Apps to access and write to user-approved folders. This feature can be used to share files between a Chrome App and a native app. For example, a Chrome App code editor could modify files managed by a native Git client.
  • SCTP for WebRTC Data Channel allows P2P data transfers between browsers to be either best effort, reliable, or semi reliable, opening up use cases such as gaming.
  • Alpha channel support for WebM video enables transparency masking (a.k.a. green screen effects) in WebM videos.
  • Speech recognition with the JavaScript Web Speech API is now supported on Chrome for Android.
  • window.devicePixelRatio now takes full-page zoom (but not pinch zoom) into account.
  • Support for { alpha: false } in getContext(''2d'') lets you create an opaque canvas. This is similar to existing WebGL functionality and can improve the rendering performance of your app.
  • The Media Source API has been unprefixed and is now supported on Chrome for Android. It allows JavaScript to generate media streams for playback, addressing use cases like adaptive streaming and time shifting live streams.
  • 2D canvas now supports the "ellipse" method.
  • Support for several Mutation Events has been removed. Consider using MutationObserver instead.

iOS version:

  • Fast form completion with Autofill
  • Long press on an image to search for related images
  • Stability / security improvements and bug fixes
32.0.1700 2014-01-14 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2014-01-15 (Android) 2014-01-27 (iOS) Blink 537.36 3.22.24
  • Tab indicators for sound, webcam and casting
  • A different look for Win8 Metro mode
  • Automatically blocking malware files
  • A number of new apps/extension APIs
  • Various under-the-hood changes for stability and performance

Android version:

  • Add web page shortcuts right to your home screen more easily from the menu
  • Reduce data usage in Chrome up to 50%. Visit Settings > Bandwidth management > Reduce data usage to enable.

iOS version:

  • Translate
    • When you come across a page written in a language that you don’t understand, just look for the translation bar. One tap and the page is quickly translated for you.
  • Reduce Data Usage
    • Reduce your data usage by up to 50%. Enable this feature and view your savings: Settings > Bandwidth > Reduce Data Usage.
  • New Tab Page update to make searching faster and easier
    • This feature is being rolled out and will be available to all users over time, beginning on iPhone.
33.0.1750 2014-02-18 (iOS) 2014-02-20 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2014-02-26 (Android) Blink 537.36 3.23.17
  • Custom Elements
  • Ogg Opus in MSE and <video>
  • Page Visibility API
  • VTTCue
  • Web Speech API (synthesis)
  • Font-kerning
  • requestAutocomplete()
  • Speech Synthesis

Android version:

  • Download progress notification for file downloads using the Chrome network stack
  • Updated help and feedback UI
  • Support for <datalist> tag

iOS version:

  • Stability and security updates
34.0.1847 2014-04-02 (Android) 2014-04-08 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2014-04-29 (iOS) Blink 537.36 3.24.35
  • Responsive Images and Unprefixed Web Audio
  • Import supervised users onto new computers
  • A different look for Windows 8 Metro mode
  • A number of new apps/extension APIs
  • New scroll bar look

Android version:

  • Battery usage optimizations

iOS version:

  • Updated tour when you start Chrome for the first time
  • Support for autocomplete in the omnibox for right to left languages
35.0.1916 2014-05-20 (Android) 2014-05-20 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2014-05-28 (iOS) Blink 537.36 3.25.28
  • More developer control over touch input
  • New JavaScript features
  • Unprefixed Shadow DOM
  • A number of new apps/extension APIs
  • Opus updated to version v1.1

Android version:

  • Undo Tab Close
  • Fullscreen video with Subtitles and HTML5 controls
  • Support for some multi-window devices

iOS version:

  • Added right-to-left support to the omnibox for Arabic and Hebrew
  • See your search term in the omnibox, instead of the long search query URL
  • Easily refine your search queries and view more results on the search results page
  • Stability improvements and bug fixes

Linux version:

  • Switched graphics interface backend from GTK+ to Aura
36.0.1985 2014-07-15 (iOS) 2014-07-16 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2014-07-16 (Android) Blink 537.36 3.26.31
  • Rich Notifications Improvements
  • An Updated Incognito / Guest NTP design
  • The addition of a Browser crash recovery bubble
  • Multiple stability and performance improvements.

Android version:

  • Improved text rendering on non-mobile optimized sites.
  • Doodles return to the new tab page.

iOS version:

  • Allows mobile sites that have added Cast support to work with your Cast-enabled device
  • Stability improvements and bug fixes.

Linux version:

  • Chrome App Launcher
37.0.2062 2014-08-26 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2014-09-03 (Android) 2014-09-22 (iOS) Blink 537.36 3.27.34
  • DirectWrite support on Windows for improved font rendering
  • A number of new apps/extension APIs
  • Multiple stability and performance improvements.
  • Removal of the showModalDialog API, breaking several enterprise web apps

Android version:

  • Signing in to Chrome signs you in to your favorite Google sites.
  • Updated look and feel with elements of Material Design.
  • Multiple performance improvements and bug fixes.

Windows version:

  • 64-bit Windows support
38.0.2125 2014-10-07 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2014-10-07 (iOS) 2014-10-08 (Android) Blink 537.36 3.28.71
  • A number of new apps/extension APIs
  • Support for logging into sites using FIDO U2F Security Key (a USB or smartcard security token) as a factor in 2-factor authentication
  • Under-the-hood changes for stability and performance

Android version:

  • Support for Battery Status and Screen orientation APIs
  • Additional Material Design updates
  • Bug fixes and performance improvements

iOS version:

  • Better support for iPhone 6 and 6+.
  • Download and open files in Google Drive.
  • Stability improvements and bug fixes.
  • Security fix.
39.0.2171 2014-11-12 (Android) 2014-11-18 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2014-11-24 (iOS) Blink 537.36 3.29.88
  • Removes SSL/TLS protocol version fallback to SSLv3.
  • 64-bit support for Mac
  • A number of new apps/extension APIs
  • Under-the-hood changes for stability and performance

Android version:

  • Number of bug fixes and performance improvements
  • Experimental Reader Mode can be enabled via chrome://flags, is not available for tablets in this version
40.0.2214 2015-01-20 (iOS) 2015-01-21 (Linux, OS X and Windows) 2015-01-21 (Android) Blink 537.36 3.30.33
  • Disabled SSLv3 support by default.
  • The minimum SSL/TLS version can now be set through about:flags.
  • Updated info dialog for Chrome app on Windows and Linux.
  • A new clock behind/ahead error message.

Android version:

  • Updated page info and content settings UI
  • Number of bug fixes and performance improvements

iOS version:

  • New look with Material Design bringing bold graphics, fluid motion, and tactile surfaces
  • iOS 8 optimizations and support for bigger phones
  • Support handoff from Chrome to your default browser on OS X
  • Stability improvements and bug fixes
41.0.2272 2015-01-22 (Linux, OS X and Windows) Blink 537.36 3.31 Current Beta Channel
41.0 2014-11-20 (Linux, OS X and Windows) Blink 537.36 3.31 Current Dev Channel


  • All versions support Windows. OS X and Linux support started with version 5.0.375. The Android 4 platform was first supported with version 16.0.4130.199 (Chrome for Android).
  • Old development and beta builds are not shown after they become stable releases.
  • As of Chrome version 26, Linux installations of the browser may be updated only on systems that support GCC v4.6 and GTK v2.24 or later. Thus systems such as Ubuntu Lucid 10.04 LTS, Debian 6''s 2.20, and RHEL 6''s 2.18 are now among those marked as deprecated.
  • Version 6–32 had Google Chrome Frame counterparts, until its development was discontinued.


  • ^ "OmahaProxy CSV Viewer". 
  • ^ "ChangeLog – v8". Google. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  • ^ "A fresh take on the browser". September 1, 2008. Retrieved 2012-07-11. 
  • ^ "Google Chrome Releases: Stable Update: Google Chrome". 
  • ^ Anthony Laforge. "Stable Channel Update". Google. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  • ^ "Google Chrome Releases: Stable Channel Update March 17, 2010". March 17, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  • ^ Brian Rakowski (May 25, 2010). "Evolving from beta to stable with a faster version of Chrome". Google. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  • ^ "Adobe Flash Player support now enabled in Google Chrome''s stable channel". June 30, 2010. Retrieved August 8, 2010. 
  • ^ Brian Rakowski (May 25, 2010). "A new Chrome stable release: Welcome, Mac and Linux!". Google. Retrieved August 28, 2014. 
  • ^ "Bringing improved PDF support to Google Chrome". Chromium Blog. June 17, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010. 
  • ^ "Bringing another Chrome release to you, right on time". Google. Retrieved October 24, 2010. 
  • ^ "Stable, Beta Channel Updates". Google. Retrieved December 3, 2010. 
  • ^ "Safer plug-ins, faster search, and richer graphics". Google. Retrieved December 17, 2010. 
  • ^ "WebP Home". Google. Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  • ^ "Dev Channel Update". Google. Retrieved January 21, 2011. 
  • ^ "Issue 48607: Sandbox GPU process". Retrieved March 21, 2012. 
  • ^ "A New Crankshaft for V8". Google. Retrieved December 17, 2010. 
  • ^ "Chrome Releases: Chrome Stable Release". March 8, 2011. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  • ^ "Chrome Beta Release". March 22, 2011. Retrieved March 23, 2011. 
  • ^ Rura, Steve (March 2011). "A fresh take on an icon". Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  • ^ a b "Chrome Stable Release". June 7, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  • ^ "Google Operating System: Chrome shifts into a new gear". Google Operating System (Unofficial Google Blog). June 7, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2012. 
  • ^ Bentzel, Chris (June 16, 2011). "Google Chrome Blog: Faster than fast". Retrieved August 21, 2011. 
  • ^ "Building better web apps with a new Chrome Beta". Retrieved Aug 15, 2011. 
  • ^ Adam Langley (August 16, 2010). "DNSSEC authenticated HTTPS in Chrome". ImperialViolet. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  • ^ "Chrome Beta Channel Update". Retrieved Aug 15, 2011. 
  • ^ a b c "Download Google Chrome 15.0.874.15 Dev with Fixes for the Revamped New Tab Page". Retrieved Sep 19, 2011. 
  • ^ a b "Download Google Chrome 16 Dev and Chrome 15 Beta". Retrieved Sep 23, 2011. 
  • ^ "Issue 50811 – chromium – Switch Chromium to ffmpeg native vp8 decoder – An open-source browser project to help move the web forward. – Google Project Hosting". Google. July 30, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  • ^ "Chromium Issue 48119: Feature request: optional permissions in Chrome extensions". Google Code. July 1, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2012 
  • ^ "Chromium Issue 99332: Remove sidetabs". Google Code. October 6, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2012 
  • ^ a b c "Stable Channel Update". Retrieved Feb 9, 2012. 
  • ^ "Google Chrome 17 FINAL". Retrieved Feb 9, 2012. 
  • ^ "Chromium Issue 15548: Search Engines should be synced". Google. June 28, 2009. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  • ^ Ionut Ilascu (January 19, 2012). "Google Chrome Beta 17.0.963.38 Disables GAIA Photo". Softpedia. Retrieved December 27, 2012. 
  • ^ a b "Faster graphics for older PCs in Chrome 18". 
  • ^ " Revision 119099". Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  • ^ "Google Chrome Blog: All your tabs, accessible everywhere". 2012-04-10. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  • ^ "Google Chrome 19 Adds Support for Next-Generation JavaScript". Softpedia. February 11, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2012. 
  • ^ "Connect with Web Intents". Google. May 16, 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2012. 
  • ^ " Revision 133210]". 
  • ^ "Decreased input padding, 8-bit canvas and getUserMedia() « Peter Beverloo". Peter Beverloo. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  • ^ Google (2012-05-29). "Dev Channel Update". Retrieved 2011-06-01. 
  • ^ Google (2012-08-21). "Stable Channel Update". Retrieved 2012-08-22. 
  • ^ "Issue 143: Handle color profiles in tagged images". 2008-09-02. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  • ^ Bright, Peter (2012-09-14). "Do Not Track support added to Chrome, arriving by the end of the year". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2012-11-02. 
  • ^ "Securing Flash Player for our Mac users". Google. Retrieved November 14, 2012. 
  • ^ a b c "A web developer’s guide to t11-08". Retrieved 2012-11-09. 
  • ^ "CSS Custom Filters". Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  • ^ Ed Hewitt (2013-02-21). "Google Chrome hits 25". OMG! Chrome!. Retrieved 2013-03-23. [self-published source]
  • ^ "No more silent extension installs". Chromium Blog. 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2012-12-24. 
  • ^ "Chrome 25 Beta: Content Security Policy and Shadow DOM". Chromium Blog. 2013-01-14. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  • ^ "Google Search in Chrome gets more secure". Chromium Blog. 2013-01-18. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  • ^ "Issue 174455: MathML support broken with Chrome 25 beta". 2013-02-05. Retrieved 2013-02-19. 
  • ^ a b c Govindan, Dharani (March 26, 2013). "Stable Channel Update". Chrome Releases. Blogger. Retrieved March 26, 2013. 
  • ^ "Google Chrome Blog: Fill out forms faster, from anywhere". 
  • ^ a b c "Chrome Release: Stable Channel Release". 2013-05-21. Retrieved 2013-05-22. 
  • ^ "Manifest Version - Google Chrome". 2013-03-04. Retrieved 2013-03-30. 
  • ^ "Chrome Releases: Chrome for Android Update". 
  • ^ Protalinski, Emil. "Google’s Blink Q&A: New rendering engine will replace WebKit on all platforms in 10 weeks with Chrome 28". The Next Web. The Next Web. Retrieved 2013-04-05. 
  • ^ Shankland, Stephen. "Blink, Google''s new Chrome browser engine, comes to life". CNET News. CNET. Retrieved 2013-04-05. 
  • ^ Finley, Klint. "Google Chrome Breaks Up With Apple’s WebKit". Wired Enterprise. Wired. Retrieved 2013-04-05. 
  • ^ a b c d e f "Chrome 28 Beta: A more immersive web, everywhere". Google. Google. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  • ^ Protalinski, Emil. "Google debuts Chrome 28 beta with rich notifications for apps and extensions on Windows; Mac and Linux coming soon". The Next Web. The Next Web. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  • ^ "Google Chrome Blog: More multilingual mobile web". Retrieved 2013-07-11. 
  • ^ a b c d e "Chrome Releases: Chrome for iOS Update". 
  • ^ "Chromium Code Reviews: Issue 12317026: Various small QUIC cleanups after merging to Chrome.". Retrieved 2013-02-22. 
  • ^ a b c d "Chrome for Android Update - WebRTC suport". 
  • ^ a b "The Next Web: Chrome 29 for Android is out: WebRTC and Web Audio support, improved scrolling, and new color picker for Web forms". 
  • ^ "Chrome for iOS Update". 
  • ^ Chrome Story: Chrome for iOS Gets “Conversational Search”
  • ^ a b c d e f Chrome 30 Beta: A richer web on Android
  • ^ a b c "Chrome for iOS Update". 
  • ^
  • ^ Chrome Releases: Chrome for Android Update
  • ^ a b c d e f g h "Chromium Dashboard". Retrieved March 9, 2014. 
  • ^ a b c "Chrome Releases". 
  • ^ "Chrome for iOS Update". 
  • ^ a b "Stable Channel Update". 
  • ^ "Chrome for Android Update". 
  • ^ "Chrome for iOS Update". 
  • ^ "Stable Channel Update". 
  • ^ Chrome’s Lack of Support for showModalDialog Breaks Some Enterprise Web Apps
  • ^ "Chrome for Android Update". 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-09-03. 
  • ^ "64 bits of awesome: 64-bit Windows Support, now in Stable!". 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2014-08-27. 
  • ^ "Google beefs up 2-step verification with physical USB Security Key option in Chrome". 2014-10-21. Retrieved 2014-10-24. 
  • ^ "Stable Channel Release". 2014-10-07. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  • ^ "Chrome for Android Update". 2014-10-08. Retrieved 2014-10-08. 
  • ^ "Chrome for iOS Update". 2014-10-07. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  • ^ "Stable Channel Release". 2014-11-18. Retrieved 2014-11-18. 
  • ^ "Chrome for Android Update". 2014-11-12. Retrieved 2014-11-12. 
  • ^ "Google Chrome Beta Updated To v39 With Reader Mode And Tweaked Tab Closing Animation". 2014-10-14. Retrieved 2014-11-14. 
  • ^ "Stable Channel Release". 2015-01-21. Retrieved 2015-01-21. 
  • ^ "Chrome for Android Update". 2015-01-21. Retrieved 2015-01-21. 
  • ^ "Chrome for iOS Update". 2015-01-20. Retrieved 2015-01-20. 
  • ^ Sundar Pichai. "Google Chrome Blog: Introducing Chrome for Android". Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  • ^ "The Chromium Blog: A deeper look at Chrome for Android". Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  • ^ "Chrome for Android Beta". Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  • ^ "Chrome stops declaring Linux systems obsolete - The H Open: News and Features". 2013-02-14. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-30. 
  • ^ The Chromium Blog: Retiring Chrome Frame
  • Features[edit]

    Google Chrome aims to be secure, fast, simple[45] and stable. There are extensive differences from its peers in Chrome''s minimalistic user interface,[21] which is atypical of modern web browsers.[46] For example, Chrome does not render RSS feeds.[47] One of Chrome''s strengths is its application performance and JavaScript processing speed, both of which were independently verified by multiple websites to be the swiftest among the major browsers of its time.[48][49] Many of Chrome''s features had been previously announced by other browser developers, but Google was the first to implement and publicly release them.[50] For example, a prominent graphical user interface (GUI) innovation, the merging of the address bar and search bar (the Omnibox), was first announced by Mozilla in May 2008 as a planned feature for Firefox.[51] Both Internet Explorer 9 and Safari (version 6) have since merged the search and address bar.

    Bookmarks and settings synchronisation[edit]

    Chrome allows users to synchronize their bookmarks, history, and settings across all devices with the browser installed by sending and receiving data through a chosen Google Account, which in turn updates all signed-in instances of Chrome. This can be authenticated either through Google credentials, or a sync passphrase.

    Web standards support[edit]The results of the Acid3 test on Google Chrome 4.0

    The first release of Google Chrome passed both the Acid1 and Acid2 tests. Beginning with version 4.0, Chrome has passed all aspects of the Acid3 test.[52]

    Chrome currently has very good support for JavaScript/ECMAScript according to Ecma International''s ECMAScript standards conformance Test 262[53] (version ES5.1 of 2012-05-18). This test reports as the final score the number of tests a browser failed; hence lower scores are better. In this test, Chrome version 37 scored 10 failed/11578 passed. For comparison, Firefox 19 scored 193 failed/11752 passed and Internet Explorer 9 has a score of 600+ failed, while Internet Explorer 10 has a score of 7 failed.

    On the official CSS 2.1 test suite by standardization organization W3C, WebKit, the Chrome rendering engine, passes 89.75% (89.38% out of 99.59% covered) CSS 2.1 tests.[54]

    On the HTML5 test, Chrome 35 scores 507 out of 555 points, placing it first among the five most popular desktop browsers.[55] With a score of 490 points, the Android version of Chrome 35 holds first place among the most popular seven tablet browsers and second place among the most popular seven mobile browsers.[56][57]

    Security[edit] See also: Browser security

    Chrome periodically retrieves updates of two blacklists (one for phishing and one for malware), and warns users when they attempt to visit a site Chrome sees as potentially harmful. This service is also made available for use by others via a free public API called "Google Safe Browsing API".[21]

    Chrome uses a complex process-allocation model to allocate different tabs to fit into different processes to prevent what happens in one tab from affecting what happens in others.[58] Following the principle of least privilege, each process is stripped of its rights and can compute, but cannot interact with sensitive areas (e.g. OS memory, user files) — this is similar to the "Protected Mode" used by Internet Explorer 9 and 10. The Sandbox Team is said to have "taken this existing process boundary and made it into a jail." This enforces a computer security model whereby there are two levels of multilevel security (user and sandbox) and the sandbox can only respond to communication requests initiated by the user.[59] On Linux sandboxing uses the seccomp mode.[60][61]

    In December 2011 a report by Accuvant, funded by Google, rated the sandbox security of Google Chrome 12 and 13 as better than either Internet Explorer 9 or Mozilla Firefox 5.[62]

    Since 2008 Chrome has been faulted for not including a master password to prevent casual access to a user''s passwords. Chrome developers have indicated that a master password does not provide real security against determined hackers and have refused to implement one. Bugs filed on this issue have been marked "WontFix".[63][64] As of Feb 2014, the Windows version asks the user to enter the Windows account password before showing saved passwords.[65]

    Security vulnerabilities[edit] See also: Comparison of web browsers § Security and vulnerabilities

    No security vulnerabilities in Chrome had been successfully exploited in the three years of Pwn2Own from 2009–2011.[66]

    At Pwn2Own 2012, Chrome was defeated by a French team who used zero day exploits in the version of Flash shipped with Chrome to take complete control of a fully patched 64-bit Windows 7 PC using a booby-trapped website that overcame Chrome''s sandboxing.[67]

    Chrome was also compromised twice at the 2012 CanSecWest Pwnium.[67][68][69] Google''s official response to the exploits was delivered by Jason Kersey, who congratulated the researchers, noting "We also believe that both submissions are works of art and deserve wider sharing and recognition."[70] Fixes for these vulnerabilities were deployed within 10 hours of the submission.[71][72]

    Version 23 fixed 15 security vulnerabilities of which six were rated as high priority.[73]

    Malware blocking[edit]

    Google introduced download scanning protection in Chrome 17. Chrome tries to prevent malware with Sandboxing. The Sandbox monitors each and every webpage tab separately. When the user opens a malicious website, Chrome contains the malware in an area called a sandbox. The other tabs that the user has open are unaffected. When the user closes the bad page, the malware goes with it leaving other tabs and the computer unaffected. Chrome also automatically updates to the latest security features to maximize user protection from malware.[74][75][76]

    • Chrome supports plug-ins with the Netscape Plugin Application Programming Interface (NPAPI),[77] so that plug-ins (for example Adobe Flash Player) run as an unrestricted separate process outside the browser and cannot be sandboxed as tabs are. ActiveX is not supported.[77] On March 30, 2010 Google announced that the latest development version of Chrome would bundle Adobe Flash with the browser, eliminating the need to download and install it separately. Flash would be kept up to date as part of Chrome''s own updates.[78] Java applet support is available in Chrome with Java 6 update 12 and above.[79] Support for Java under OS X was provided by a Java Update released on May 18, 2010.[80]
    • On August 12, 2009, Google introduced a replacement for NPAPI that is more portable and more secure[81] called Pepper Plugin API (PPAPI).[82] The default bundled PPAPI Flash Player (or Pepper-based Flash Player) was available on Chrome OS first, then replaced the NPAPI Flash Player on Linux from Chrome version 20, on Windows from version 21 (which also reduced Flash crashes by 20%),[83] and eventually came to OS X at version 23.[84]
    • On September 23, 2013 Google announced that it will be deprecating and then removing NPAPI support. NPAPI support was removed from Linux in Chrome release 35.[85] This does mean NPAPI plugins like Java can no longer work in Chrome.[86]
    Privacy[edit] Privacy mode[edit]Incognito Mode in Chrome 37

    The private browsing feature called Incognito mode prevents the browser from permanently storing any history information or cookies from the websites visited.[87] Incognito mode is similar to the private browsing feature in other web browsers.

    User tracking[edit]

    Chrome sends details about its users to Google through both optional and non-optional user tracking mechanisms.[88]

    Tracking methods Method[89] Information sent When Optional? If optional, is default?
    Installation Randomly generated token included in installer. Used to measure success rate of Google Chrome once at installation.[90]

    On installation

    No n/a
    RLZ identifier[91] Encoded string, according to Google, contains non-identifying information about where Chrome was downloaded from and its installation week, and is used to measure promotional campaigns.[90] Google provides the source code to decode this string.[92]
    • On Google search query
    • On first launch and first use of address bar[90]
    Partial[note 2][90] n/a
    clientID[93] Unique identifier along with user preferences, logs of usage metrics and crashes. Unknown Yes[94] No
    Omnibox predictions[93] Text typed into the address bar. While typing Yes Yes
    Page not found Text typed into the address bar. Upon receiving "Server not found" response Yes Yes
    Google Update (Windows) Information about how often Chrome is used, details about the OS and Chrome version. Unknown Yes[95] n/a
    Google Software Update (OS X)

    Some of the tracking mechanisms can be optionally enabled and disabled through the installation interface[96] and through the browser''s options dialog.[93] Unofficial builds, such as SRWare Iron and CoolNovo (previously known as ChromePlus), seek to remove these features from the browser altogether.[89] The RLZ feature is not included in the Chromium browser either.[92]

    In March 2010, Google devised a new method to collect installation statistics: the unique ID token included with Chrome is now only used for the first connection that Google Update makes to its server.[97]

    The optional suggestion service included in Google Chrome has been criticized because it provides the information typed into the Omnibox to the search provider before the user even hits return. This allows the search engine to provide URL suggestions, but also provides them with web usage information tied to an IP address.[98]

    The optional feature to use a web service to help resolve spelling errors has privacy implications.[99]

    Do Not Track[edit] Main article: Criticism of Google § Do Not Track

    In February 2012, Google announced that Chrome would support Do Not Track by the end of 2012 and the protocol was implemented on version 23.[100]


    The JavaScript virtual machine used by Chrome, the V8 JavaScript engine, has features such as dynamic code generation, hidden class transitions, and precise garbage collection.[21]

    In 2008, several websites performed benchmark tests using the SunSpider JavaScript Benchmark tool as well as Google''s own set of computationally intense benchmarks, which include ray tracing and constraint solving.[101] They unanimously reported that Chrome performed much faster than all competitors against which it had been tested, including Safari (for Windows), Firefox 3.0, Internet Explorer 7, Opera, and Internet Explorer 8.[102][103][104][105][106][107] However on October 11, 2010 independent tests of JavaScript performance, Chrome has been scoring just behind Opera''s Presto engine since it was updated in version 10.5.[108]

    On September 3, 2008, Mozilla responded by stating that their own TraceMonkey JavaScript engine (then in beta), was faster than Chrome''s V8 engine in some tests.[109][110][111] John Resig, Mozilla''s JavaScript evangelist, further commented on the performance of different browsers on Google''s own suite, commenting on Chrome''s "decimating" of the other browsers, but he questioned whether Google''s suite was representative of real programs. He stated that Firefox 3.0 performed poorly on recursion-intensive benchmarks, such as those of Google, because the Mozilla team had not implemented recursion-tracing yet.[112]

    Two weeks after Chrome''s launch, the WebKit team announced a new JavaScript engine, SquirrelFish Extreme,[113] citing a 36% speed improvement over Chrome''s V8 engine.[114][115][116]

    Like most major web browsers, Chrome uses DNS prefetching to speed up website lookups,[117] as do other browsers like Firefox,[118] Safari,[119] Internet Explorer (called DNS Pre-resolution),[120] and in Opera as a UserScript (not built-in).[121]

    Like most major web browsers, Chrome utilizes the faster SPDY protocol instead of HTTP[122][123] when communicating with servers that support it, such as Google services, Facebook, Twitter, and other websites.

    Stability[edit]Screenshot of Chrome browser crash

    A multi-process architecture is implemented in Chrome[124] where, by default, a separate process is allocated to each site instance and plugin. This procedure is termed process isolation,[125] and it prevents tasks from interfering with each other, raising security and stability. An attacker successfully gaining access to one application gains access to no others,[126] and failure in one instance results in a Sad Tab screen of death, similar to the well-known Sad Mac, but only one tab crashes instead of the whole application. This strategy exacts a fixed per-process cost up front, but results in less memory bloat overall as fragmentation is confined to each instance and no longer needs further memory allocations.[21] This architecture is being adopted in upcoming versions of Safari[127] and Firefox.[128]

    Chrome includes a process management utility called Task Manager which lets users see what sites and plugins are using the most memory, downloading the most bytes and overusing the CPU and provides the ability to terminate them.[21] Chrome Version 23 ensures its users an improved battery life for the systems supporting Chrome''s GPU accelerated video decoding.[73][129]

    User interface[edit]

    By default, the main user interface includes back, forward, refresh/cancel and menu buttons. A home button is not shown by default, but can be added through the Settings page to take the user to the new tab page or a custom home page.[130]

    Tabs are the main component of Chrome''s user interface and as such, have been moved to the top of the window rather than below the controls. This subtle change contrasts with many existing tabbed browsers which are based on windows and contain tabs. Tabs, with their state, can be transferred seamlessly between window containers by dragging. Each tab has its own set of controls, including the Omnibox.[21]

    The Omnibox is a URL box that combines the functions of both the address bar and search box. If a user enters the URL of a site previously searched from, Chrome allows pressing Tab to search the site again directly from the Omnibox. When a user starts typing in the Omnibox, Chrome provides suggestions for previously visited sites (based on the URL or in-page text), popular websites (not necessarily visited before — powered by Google Instant), and popular searches. Although Instant can be turned off, suggestions based on previously visited sites cannot be turned off. Chrome will also autocomplete the URLs of sites visited often.[21] If a user types keywords into the Omnibox that don''t match any previously visited websites and presses enter, Chrome will conduct the search using the default search engine.

    One of Chrome''s differentiating features is the New Tab Page, which can replace the browser home page and is displayed when a new tab is created. Originally, this showed thumbnails of the nine most visited web sites, along with frequent searches, recent bookmarks, and recently closed tabs; similar to Internet Explorer and Firefox with Google Toolbar, or Opera''s Speed Dial.[21] In Google Chrome 2.0, the New Tab Page was updated to allow users to hide thumbnails they did not want to appear.[131]

    Starting in version 3.0, the New Tab Page was revamped to display thumbnails of the eight most visited web sites. The thumbnails could be rearranged, pinned, and removed. Alternatively, a list of text links could be displayed instead of thumbnails. It also features a "Recently closed" bar that shows recently closed tabs and a "tips" section that displays hints and tricks for using the browser.[132]

    Google Chrome logos. Top: 3D motif from project start until March 2011. Bottom: 2D motif from March 2011 to present.

    Chrome includes a bookmarks submenu that lists the user''s bookmarks, provides easy access to Chrome''s Bookmark Manager, and allows the user to toggle a bookmarks bar on or off.

    For web developers, Chrome features an element inspector (Inspect Element), similar to the browser extension in Firebug, which allows users to look into the DOM and see what makes up the webpage.[117]

    Chrome has special URLs that load application-specific pages instead of websites or files on disk. Chrome also has a built-in ability to enable experimental features. Originally called about:labs, the address was changed to about:flags to make it less obvious to casual users.[133][134]

    In March 2011, Google introduced a new simplified logo to replace the previous 3D logo that had been used since the project''s inception. Google designer Steve Rura explained the company reasoning for the change: "Since Chrome is all about making your web experience as easy and clutter-free as possible, we refreshed the Chrome icon to better represent these sentiments. A simpler icon embodies the Chrome spirit – to make the web quicker, lighter, and easier for all."[135]

    In September 2013, Google started making Chrome apps "For your desktop." This meant offline access, desktop shortcuts, and less dependence on Chrome- They launch in a window separate from Chrome, and look more like native applications.[136]

    Desktop shortcuts and apps[edit]

    Chrome allows users to make local desktop shortcuts that open web applications in the browser. The browser, when opened in this way, contains none of the regular interface except for the title bar, so as not to "interrupt anything the user is trying to do". This allows web applications to run alongside local software (similar to Mozilla Prism and Fluid).[21]

    This feature, according to Google, will be enhanced with the Chrome Web Store, a one-stop web-based web applications directory which opened in December 2010.[137][138]

    Chrome Web Store[edit] Main article: Chrome Web Store

    Announced on December 7, 2010, the Chrome Web Store allows users to install web applications as extensions to the browser, although most of these function simply as links to popular web pages and/or games, but some of the apps like Springpad do provide extra features like offline access. The themes and extensions have also been tightly integrated into the new store, allowing users to search the entire catalog of Chrome extras.[139]

    The Chrome Web Store was opened on February 11, 2011 with the release of Google Chrome 9.0.[140]

    Extensions[edit] Main article: Google Chrome Extensions

    On September 9, 2009, Google enabled extensions by default on Chrome''s developer channel, and provided several sample extensions for testing.[141] In December, the Google Chrome extension gallery beta began with over 300 extensions.[34][142]

    Along with Google Chrome 4.0, the extension gallery was officially launched on January 25, 2010, containing over 1500 extensions.[143]

    As of February 4, 2011, the extension gallery featured more than 11,500 extensions,[144] including official extensions from the Independent,[145] CEOP,[146] Transport for London,[147] Cricinfo,[148] Web of Trust (WOT),[149] and FIFA.[150]

    Many Chrome extensions, once installed, have access to the user''s data. There are three levels of permissions that an app or extension may request.[151]

    On May 27, 2014, Google issued an update to Chrome preventing Windows users from installing extensions obtained outside the Chrome Web Store.[152]


    Starting with Google Chrome 3.0, users can install themes to alter the appearance of the browser.[153] Many free third-party themes are provided in an online gallery,[154] accessible through a "Get themes" button in Chrome''s options.[155]

    Automatic web page translation[edit]

    Starting with Google Chrome 4.1 the application added a built-in translation bar using Google Translate. Translation is currently available for 52 languages.[156] When Chrome detects a foreign language other than the user''s preferred language as set during the installation time, it asks the user whether or not to translate.

    Release channels and updates[edit]

    On January 8, 2009, Google introduced a new release system with three distinct channels: Stable, Beta, and Developer preview (called the "Dev" channel). Before this change there were only two channels: Beta and Developer preview. All previous Developer channel users were moved to the Beta channel. The reason given by Google is that the Developer channel builds are less stable and polished than those that Developer channel users were getting during Google Chrome''s Beta period.

    The Stable channel is updated with features and fixes once they have been thoroughly tested in the Beta channel, and Beta is updated (initially this was about once monthly) as stable and complete features migrate down from the Developer channel. The Developer channel is where ideas and features get tested (and sometimes fail) and can be very unstable at times.[157][158]

    Google Chrome Canary Application Icon

    On July 22, 2010, Google announced it would ramp up the speed at which it releases new stable versions; the release cycles were shortened from quarterly to six weeks for major Stable updates.[159] Beta channel releases now come roughly at the same rate as Stable releases, though approximately one month in advance, while Dev channel releases appear roughly once or twice weekly, allowing time for basic release-critical testing.[160] This faster release cycle also brought a fourth channel: the "Canary" channel, updated daily from a build produced at 09:00 UTC from the most stable of the last 40 revisions.[161] The name refers to the practice of using canaries in coal mines, so if a change "kills" Chrome Canary, it will be blocked from migrating down to the Developer channel, at least until fixed in a subsequent Canary build. Canary is "the most bleeding-edge official version of Chrome and somewhat of a mix between Chrome dev and the Chromium snapshot builds". Canary releases run side-by-side with any other channel; it is not linked to the other Google Chrome installation and can therefore run different synchronization profiles, themes, and browser preferences. This ensures that fallback functionality remains even when some Canary update may contain release-breaking bugs.[162] It does not natively include the option to be the default browser, although on OS X it can be set through Safari''s preferences. Canary was Windows-only at first; an OS X version was released on May 3, 2011.[163]

    Chrome beta for Android was launched on January 10, 2013; like Canary, it runs side-by-side with the stable channel for Android.[164][165]

    All Chrome channels are automatically kept up-to-date in accordance with their respective release cycles. The details differ by platform. On Windows, it uses Google Update, and auto-update can be controlled via Group Policy.[166] Alternatively, users may download one of two standalone installers of a version of Chrome that does not auto-update.[167][168] On OS X, it uses Google Update Service, and auto-update can be controlled via the OS X "defaults" system.[169] On Linux, it lets the system''s normal package management system supply the updates. This auto-updating behaviour is a key difference from Chromium, the non-branded open source browser which forms the core of Google Chrome. Because Chromium also serves as the pre-release development trunk for Chrome, its revisions are provided as source code and buildable snapshots are produced continuously with each new commit, requiring users to manage their own browser builds.[170]

    Color management[edit] Main article: Color management

    Chrome supports color management by using the system provided ICC v2 and v4 support on OS X, and from version 22 supports ICC v2 profiles by default on other platforms.[171]


    Below is a list of platforms for which Chrome is available.[172]

    • Windows: XP Service Pack 2 or later / Server 2003 Service Pack 1 or later / Vista / Server 2008 / 7 / Server 2008 R2 / 8 / Server 2012
    • OS X: 10.6 or later[173]
      • support for 32-bit Macs ended in October 2014[174][175][176]
    • Linux[note 3]
    • Android 4.0 or later
    • iOS 6.0 or later

    As of November 2014[update], stable 32-bit and 64-bit builds are available for Linux and Windows, with only 64-bit stable builds available for OS X.[176][178][179] 64-bit Windows builds became available in the developer channel and as canary builds on June 3, 2014,[180] in beta channel on July 30, 2014,[181] and in stable channel on August 26, 2014.[182] 64-bit OS X builds became available as canary builds on November 7, 2013,[183][184] in beta channel on October 9, 2014,[185] and in stable channel on November 18, 2014.[176]

    Android version[edit] Main article: Google Chrome for Android

    A beta version for Android 4.0 devices was launched on February 7, 2012, available for a limited number of countries from Google Play.[186]

    Notable features: synchronization with desktop Chrome to provide the same bookmarks and view the same browser tabs,[187] page pre-rendering,[188] hardware acceleration.[189]

    Many of the latest HTML5 features: almost all of the Web Platform’s features: GPU-accelerated canvas, including CSS 3D Transforms, CSS animations, SVG, WebSocket (including binary messages), Dedicated Workers; it has overflow scroll support, strong HTML5 video support, and new capabilities such as IndexedDB, WebWorkers, Application Cache and the File APIs, date and time pickers, parts of the Media Capture API.[188][190] Also supports mobile oriented features such as Device Orientation and Geolocation.[190]

    Mobile customisations: swipe gesture tab switching,[187] link preview allows zooming in on (multiple) links to ensure the desired one is clicked,[187] font size boosting to ensure readability regardless of the zoom level.[190]

    Missing in the mobile version are sandboxed tabs,[188][191] Safe Browsing,[188] apps or extensions,[189] Adobe Flash (now and in future),[189] Native Client.[189]

    Development changes: remote debugging,[188][192] part of the browser layer has been implemented in Java, communicating with the rest of the Chromium and WebKit code through Java Native Bindings.[190] The code of Chrome for Android is a fork of the Chromium project. It is a priority to upstream most new and modified code to Chromium and WebKit to resolve the fork.[190]

    The April 17, 2012 update included the availability to access in 31 additional languages and in all countries where Google Play is available. A desktop version of a website can also be requested as opposed to a mobile version. In addition, Android users can now add bookmarks to their Android home screens if they choose and decide which apps should handle links opened in Chrome.[193]

    On the June 27, 2012 Google Chrome for Android exited beta and became stable.[194]

    Chrome 18.0.1026311, released at September 26, 2012 was the first version of Chrome for Android to support Intel x86 based mobile devices.[195]

    Starting from version 25, the Chrome version for Android is aligned with the desktop version, and usually new stable releases are available at the same time between the Android and the desktop version. Google released a separate Chrome for Android beta channel on January 10, 2013, with version 25.[164] Currently, a separate beta version of Chrome is available in the Google Play store and it can run side-by-side with the stable release.[196]

    Chrome OS[edit] Main article: Chrome OS

    Google Chrome is the basis of Google''s Chrome OS operating system that ships on specific hardware from Google''s manufacturing partners.[197] The user interface has a minimalist design resembling the Google Chrome browser. Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Web; the only applications on the devices are a browser incorporating a media player and a file manager.[198][199][200][201][202]

    Google announced Chrome OS on July 7, 2009.[203]

    iOS version[edit]

    Chrome is available on Apple''s mobile iOS operating system as Google Chrome for iOS. Released in the Apple App Store on June 26, 2012, it supports the iPad, iPhone, and iPod touch, and requires that the device have iOS version 6.0 or greater installed.[204] Per Apple''s requirements for browsers released through their App Store, this version of Chrome uses the iOS WebKit - which is Apple''s own mobile rendering engine and components, developed for their Safari browser - but is restricted from using Apple''s Nitro JavaScript engine or even Google''s own V8.[205] Chrome is the default web browser for the iOS Gmail application, but it cannot be used as the device-wide default application for opening webpages because Apple has not provided iOS users with the option to change the default from Safari.[206]

    In a review by Chitika, Chrome was noted as having 1.5% of the iOS web browser market as of July 18, 2012.[207] In October 2013, Chrome had 3% of the iOS browser market.[208]

    Windows 8 version[edit]Google Chrome in Windows 8 mode displaying the new tab page.

    In June 2012, "Windows 8 mode" was introduced to developer channel, which enables Windows 8 users to run Chrome in a full-screen, tablet-optimized interface within the Metro shell, with access to snapping, sharing, and search functionalities.[209] In October 2013, Windows 8 mode on developer channel changed to use a desktop environment mimicking the interface of Chrome OS with a dedicated windowing system and taskbar for web apps.[210]

    Windows XP[edit]

    Support for Google Chrome on Windows XP has been extended until April 2015.[211]

    For Chrome 35 and later the CPU must support SSE2 instructions (Intel P4 minimum). Chrome will no longer run on pre Intel P4 and early Athlon CPUs which do not have SSE2 support.[citation needed]

    Usage[edit]Usage share of web browsers according to StatCounter.[212]Most used web browser by country as of October 2014 according to StatCounter.   Google Chrome   Internet Explorer   Firefox   Safari   OperaFurther information: Usage share of web browsers and Browser wars

    In 2008, Matthew Moore in the The Daily Telegraph summarized the verdict of early reviewers: "Google Chrome is attractive, fast and has some impressive new features, but may not — yet — be a threat to its Microsoft rival."[213]

    Initially, Microsoft reportedly played down the threat from Chrome and predicted that most people would embrace Internet Explorer 8. Opera Software said that "Chrome will strengthen the Web as the biggest application platform in the world".[214] But by February 25, 2010, BusinessWeek had reported that "For the first time in years, energy and resources are being poured into browsers, the ubiquitous programs for accessing content on the Web. Credit for this trend—a boon to consumers—goes to two parties. The first is Google, whose big plans for the Chrome browser have shaken Microsoft out of its competitive torpor and forced the software giant to pay fresh attention to its own browser, Internet Explorer. Microsoft all but ceased efforts to enhance IE after it triumphed in the last browser war, sending Netscape to its doom. Now it''s back in gear."[215] Mozilla said that Chrome''s introduction into the web browser market comes as "no real surprise", that "Chrome is not aimed at competing with Firefox", and furthermore that it would not affect Google''s revenue relationship with Mozilla.[216][217]

    Chrome''s design bridges the gap between desktop and so-called "cloud computing." At the touch of a button, Chrome lets you make a desktop, Start menu, or QuickLaunch shortcut to any Web page or Web application, blurring the line between what''s online and what''s inside your PC. For example, I created a desktop shortcut for Google Maps. When you create a shortcut for a Web application, Chrome strips away all of the toolbars and tabs from the window, leaving you with something that feels much more like a desktop application than like a Web application or page.

    —PC World[218]

    Chrome overtook Firefox in November 2011 in worldwide usage. As of September 2012[update], according to StatCounter, Google Chrome had 34% worldwide usage share, making it the most widely used web browser, while Internet Explorer had 33% and Firefox had 22%.[14][219]

    Along with Safari and Mozilla Firefox, Chrome receives a weekend "bump", which boosts its marketshare by as much as three percentage points on week-ends, at the expense of Internet Explorer.[220]

    It was reported by StatCounter, a web analytics company, that for the single day of Sunday, March 18, 2012, Chrome was the most used web browser in the world for the first time. Chrome secured 32.7% of the global web browsing on that day, while Internet Explorer followed closely behind with 32.5%.[221]

    From May 14–21, 2012, Google Chrome was for the first time responsible for more Internet traffic than Microsoft''s Internet Explorer, which long had held its spot as the most used web browser in the world.[222] According to StatCounter, 31.88% of web traffic was generated by Chrome for a sustained period of one week and 31.47% by Internet Explorer. Though Chrome had topped Internet Explorer for single day''s usage in the past, this was the first time it had led for one full week.[223]

    At the 2012 Google I/O developers'' conference, Google claimed that there were 310 million active users of Chrome, almost double the number in 2011, which was stated as 160 million active users.[224]

    As of June 2013, according to StatCounter, Chrome overtook Internet Explorer for the first time in the US.[225]

    As of August 2013, Chrome was used by 43% of internet users worldwide. This study was done by Statista, which also noted that in North America, only 34% of people use Chrome, the lowest in the world.[226]

    Enterprise deployment[edit]

    In December 2010 Google announced that to make it easier for businesses to use Chrome they would provide an official Chrome MSI package. For business use it is helpful to have full-fledged MSI packages that can be customized via transform files (.mst) - but the MSI provided with Chrome is only a very limited MSI wrapper fitted around the normal installer, and many businesses find that this arrangement does not meet their needs.[227] The normal downloaded Chrome installer puts the browser in the user''s local app data directory and provides invisible background updates, but the MSI package will allow installation at the system level, providing system administrators control over the update process[228] — it was formerly possible only when Chrome was installed using Google Pack. Google also created group policy objects to fine tune the behavior of Chrome in the business environment, for example setting automatic updates interval, disable auto-updates, a home page and to workaround their basic Windows design flaws and bugs if it comes to roaming profiles support, etc.[229] Until version 24 the software is known not to be ready for enterprise deployments with roaming profiles or Terminal Server/Citrix environments.[230]

    Chromium[edit] Main article: Chromium (web browser)

    In September 2008, Google released a large portion of Chrome''s source code as an open-source project called Chromium. This move enabled third-party developers to study the underlying source code and to help port the browser to the OS X and Linux operating systems. The Google-authored portion of Chromium is released under the permissive BSD license.[231] Other portions of the source code are subject to a variety of open-source licenses.[232] Chromium is similar to Chrome, but lacks built-in automatic updates and built-in Flash player, as well as Google branding and has a blue-colored logo instead of the multicolored Google logo.[233][234] Chromium does not implement user RLZ tracking.[92][235][236] The Google Chrome PDF viewer was previously not in Chromium, but was made open source in May 2014.[237][238]

    Developing for Chrome[edit]

    It is possible to develop Apps, Extensions, and Themes for Chrome. They contain a manifest file that specifies basic information (such as version, name, description, privileges, etc.), and other files for UI (icons, popups, etc.). Google has an official developer''s guide.[239]

    Tags:2015, Adobe, Adobe Flash, Android, Arabic, Bandwidth, Basic, Blog, Chromium, Daily Telegraph, Data, Denmark, Europe, FIFA, Facebook, Firefox, French, German, Gmail, Google, Google Chrome, HTML, HTML5, HTTP, Hebrew, History of Google, Import, Internet, Internet Explorer, Java, Linux, London, Malware, Media, Microsoft, Mozilla, Netscape, North America, Operating System, Proxy, RSS, Safari, Search, Twitter, US, USB, United States, Web application, Web page, Web standards, Website, Wikipedia, Windows, iPad, iPhone

    Google Chrome Media

    Google Chrome Terms

      Google Chrome Articles

      Google Chrome Your Feedback

      Alphabetic Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
      Most Popular:
      فهرست الفبایی: ا آ ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ه ی
      محبوبترین ها: