Document 32021R0584 Title and reference Council Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/584 of 12 April 2021 implementing Regulation (EU) No 359/2011 concerning restrictive measures directed against certain persons, entities and bodies in view of the situation in Iran ST/6041/2021/INIT OJ L 124I , 12.4.2021, p. 1–6 (BG, ES, CS, DA, DE, ET, EL, EN, FR, GA, HR, IT, LV, LT, HU, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SK, SL, FI, SV) ELI: http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg_impl/2021/584/oj 12.4.2021
LI 124/1 COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2021/584 of 12 April 2021 implementing Regulation (EU) No 359/2011 concerning restrictive measures directed against certain persons, entities and bodies in view of the situation in Iran THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Having regard to Council Regulation (EU) No 359/2011 of 12 April 2011 concerning restrictive measures directed against certain persons, entities and bodies in view of the situation in Iran (1), and in particular Article 12(1) thereof, Having regard to the proposal from the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Whereas: (1)
On 12 April 2011 the Council adopted Regulation (EU) No 359/2011. (2)
On 8 December 2019 the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy issued a declaration on behalf of the Union deploring the widespread and disproportionate use of force by the Iranian security forces, which led to high numbers of deaths and injuries during the response to the November 2019 demonstrations. The declaration also spelled out that the Union expects all perpetrators of violence to be held accountable and called on the Iranian authorities to ensure transparent and credible investigations to clarify the number of deaths and arrested, and to provide due process to all detainees. Furthermore, in reaction to Iran’s decision to shut down internet access to global networks for over a week, preventing communication and the free flow of information for Iranian citizens, the declaration stressed that fundamental rights, such as freedom of expression and assembly, must always be respected. (3)
In this context, and in line with the Union’s commitment to address all issues of concern with Iran, including the human rights situation, eight persons and three entities should be included in the list of natural and legal persons, entities and bodies subject to restrictive measures set out in Annex I to Regulation (EU) No 359/2011. (4)
Annex I to Regulation (EU) No 359/2011 should therefore be amended accordingly, HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION: Article 1 Annex I to Regulation (EU) No 359/2011 is amended as set out in the Annex to this Regulation. Article 2 This Regulation shall enter into force on the date of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union. This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States. Done at Brussels, 12 April 2021. For the Council The President A. P. ZACARIAS (1) OJ L 100, 14.4.2011, p. 1. ANNEX The following persons and entities are added to the list of natural and legal persons, entities and bodies set out in Annex I to Regulation (EU) No 359/2011:
Gholamreza Soleimani is the Head of the Basij Organisation. The Basij Organisation used lethal force to suppress the November 2019 protests in Iran, causing the deaths of and injuries to unarmed protesters and other civilians in many cities across the country. As Head of the Basij Organisation, Gholamreza Soleimani bears responsibility for the violent suppression of the protests and serious human rights violations in Iran.
SALAMI Hossein (a.k.a. SALAMI Hussain)
POB: Vaneshan, Golpayegan (Iran) DOB: 1339 (Iranian Hijri calendar) 1960 or 1961 (Gregorian calendar) Nationality: Iranian Gender: male Position: Commander in Chief of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) Rank: Major General
Hossein Salami has been the Commander in Chief of the IRGC since April 2019, which includes the Basij militia, and is a member of the National Security Council. The IRGC’s regular forces and the Basij militia used lethal force to suppress the November 2019 protests in Iran, causing the deaths of and injuries to unarmed protesters and other civilians in many cities across the country. As a member of the National Security Council, Hossein Salami took part in the sessions that resulted in the orders to use lethal force to suppress the November 2019 protests. Hossein Salami therefore bears responsibility for serious human rights violations in Iran.
Nationality: Iranian Gender: male Position: Commander of the Special Units of the Iranian police force
Hassan Karami is the Commander of the Special Units of the Iranian police force. The Special Units used lethal force to suppress the November 2019 protests in Iran, causing the deaths of and injuries to unarmed protesters and other civilians in many cities across the country. As the Commander of the Special Units, which have caused the deaths of and injuries to unarmed protesters and other civilians, Hassan Karami bears responsibility for serious human rights violations in Iran.
PAKPOUR Mohammad (a.k.a. PAKPUR Mohammad)
POB: Arak (Iran) DOB: 1340 (Iranian Hijri calendar), 1961 (Gregorian calendar) Nationality: Iranian Gender: male Position: Commander in Chief of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) Ground Forces Rank: Brigadier General
Mohammad Pakpour has been Commander in Chief of the IRGC Ground Forces since March 2010. The IRGC’s Ground Forces used lethal force to suppress the November 2019 protests in Iran, causing the deaths of and injuries to unarmed protesters and other civilians in many cities across the country. As Commander in Chief of the IRGC’s Ground Forces, which have used lethal force against unarmed protesters and other civilians, Mohammad Pakpour bears responsibility for serious human rights violations in Iran.
POB: Isfahan (a.k.a. Esfahan, Ispahan) Nationality: Iranian Gender: male Position: Commander in Chief of the Iranian police force
Hossein Ashtari has been the Commander in Chief of the Iranian police force since March 2015 and is a member of the National Security Council. The police force includes the Emdad Units and the Special Units. Iran’s ordinary police force, the Emdad Units and the Special Units used lethal force to suppress the November 2019 protests in Iran, causing the deaths of and injuries to unarmed protesters and other civilians in many cities across the country. As a member of the National Security Council, Hossein Ashtari took part in the sessions that resulted in the orders to use lethal force to suppress the November 2019 protests. Hossein Ashtari therefore bears responsibility for serious human rights violations in Iran.
Gender: male Position: Former Director of Evin Prison; former Director of other detention centres
Between July 2019 and June 2020, Gholamreza Ziaei was the Director of Evin Prison, where already harsh conditions for detainees further deteriorated during his tenure. Female prisoners were denied phone contact with their children. Political prisoners were denied weekly visits by relatives, which were only allowed every two months. During the 2009 protests, Ziaei was in charge of the Kahrizak Detention Center, where at least five detainees, who had been arrested in connection with Tehran’s 2009 mass street protests, died after being tortured. From 2017 to 2019, before taking charge of Evin Prison in Tehran, Ziaei was the director of Rajaee Shahr Prison in Karaj, west of Tehran, where there have been numerous protests by political prisoners against abuse and inhumane living conditions.
POB: Safi Abad, south of Dezful, Khuzestan (Iran) Gender: male Passport number: 2001624001 (national ID number) Position: Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) Commander of Khuzestan Province Vali Asr Corps Rank: Brigadier General
As the Commander of the IRGC in Khuzestan since 2009, Hassan Shahvarpour is responsible for commanding the forces which used machine guns against protesters and other civilians in the city of Mahshahr during the November 2019 protests. Under his command, 148 people were killed by the IRGC by heavy machine gun fire from armoured vehicles encircling fleeing protesters hiding in nearby marshes.
POB: Sari, Mazandaran Province (Iran) DOB: 1352 (Iranian Hijri calendar), 1972 or 1973 (Gregorian calendar) Gender: female Position: Governor of Shahr-e Qods and Head of the City Security Council
As the governor of Shahr-e Qods and Head of the City Security Council since September 2019, Leyla Vaseghi ordered the police and other armed forces to use lethal means during the November 2019 protests, causing the deaths of and injuries to unarmed protesters and other civilians. As the governor of Shahr-e Qods and Head of the City Security Council, Leyla Vaseghi bears responsibility for serious human rights violations in Iran.
Entities Name Identifying information Reasons Date of listing Evin Prison Address: Tehran Province, Tehran, District 2, Dasht-e Behesht (Iran) Evin Prison is a detention centre where political prisoners have been held and severe human rights abuses, including torture, have repeatedly taken place over the past years and decades. November 2019 protesters were, and at least to some extent still are, detained in Evin Prison as political prisoners. Prisoners in Evin Prison are being deprived of basic procedural rights, and are sometimes held in solitary confinement or overcrowded cells with poor hygienic conditions. There are detailed reports of physical and psychological torture. Detainees are denied contact with family and lawyers as well as adequate health treatment.
Address: Tehran Province, Hasanabad, Bijin Industrial Zone, Tehran, Qom Old Road (Iran) Telephone: +98 21 5625 8050
Fashafouyeh Prison is a detention centre designated originally to detain offenders of drug-related crimes, recently also holding political prisoners and, in some cases, forcing them to share cells with drug addicts. The living and hygienic conditions are very poor, lacking basic needs like clean drinking water. During the November 2019 protests, several protesters were detained in Fashafouyeh Prison, including minors. Reports indicate that November 2019 protesters were subjected to torture and inhumane treatment at Fashafouyeh Prison, e.g. by deliberately wounding them with boiling water and through denial of medical treatment. According to an Amnesty International report on the crackdown of the November 2019 protests, children as young as 15 have been detained alongside adults in Fashafouyeh Prison. Three November 2019 protesters who are currently being held in Fashafouyeh Prison were sentenced to death by a court in Tehran.
Rajaee Shahr Prison has been known for the deprivation of human rights, including severe physical and psychological torture of political prisoners and prisoners of conscience as well as mass executions without fair trial, ever since the Islamic Revolution in 1979. Hundreds of detainees, including children, were severely mistreated in Rajaee Shahr Prison in the aftermath of the November 2019 protests. There are credible reports about numerous cases of torture and other forms of cruel punishment, including cases involving minors.
–2020_Iranian_protests The 2019–2020 Iranian protests also known as the Bloody November (Persian: آبان خونین), were a series of nationwide civil protests in Iran, initially caused by a 50%–200% increase in fuel prices, leading to calls for the overthrow of the government in Iran and Supreme LeaderAli Khamenei. The protests commenced as peaceful gatherings on the evening of 15 November but spread to 21 cities within hours, as videos of the protest circulated online, eventually becoming the most violent and severe anti-government unrest since the rise of Iran's Islamic Republic in 1979. To block the sharing of information regarding the protests and the deaths of hundreds of protesters on social media platforms, the government shut down the Internet nationwide, resulting in a near-total internet blackout of around six days. In an effort to crush the protests the Iranian government, (according to Amnesty international), shot protesters dead from rooftops, helicopters, and at close range with machine gun fire. In an effort to mask the scale and casualty count of the protests, it hauled away large numbers of bodies of the dead protesters, (according to the New York Times) and threatened families of slain protesters not to speak to the media or hold funerals, (according to Amnesty International). As many as 1,500 Iranian protesters were killed. The government crackdown prompted a violent reaction from protesters who destroyed 731 government banks including Iran's central bank, nine Islamic religious centres, tore down anti-American billboards, and posters and statues of the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei as well as former leader Khomeini. Fifty government military bases were also attacked by protesters. The uprising differed from earlier 2009 protests in not being limited to students and large cities, and in the speed, severity and higher death toll of the government crackdown, which crushed the uprising in three days, although protests flared up periodically in the months after. On 10 December 2019 the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), which is a human rights organization based in New York City, put Iran among the countries with the highest number of imprisoned journalists. The KurdistanHuman Rights Network has stated that many detained protesters, some of them underage, are held under gruelling conditions. In addition, sources have characterized conditions in the Greater Tehran Central Penitentiary as "unbearable". In addition to the first phase of arrests during the demonstrations, the security forces examined photographs of licence plates taken during the protests "to identify leaders and speak to informants to identify more" protesters to arrest. Many observers are worried that some of those arrested have undergone severe torture and may face execution. On September 2, 2020, Amnesty International accused the Iranian government of widespread abuse of human rights during the 2019 protests that were sparked following soaring fuel prices. According to latest rights group report, Iran resorted to arbitrary detention, enforced disappearance, torture and other ill-treatment of those involved in the November unrest that rocked the Islamic Republic. Arrest of journalists and lawyers The European Parliament condemned the government of Iran for harassment of lawyers and journalists, and for denying legal assistance to the large number of protesters already in jail. International organizations warn about torture In a new statement Amnesty International has spoken about constant torture exerted on thousands arrested during November Uprising. The statement says, "they have been beaten, punched, kicked and flogged by security forces". Detainees include children of 15 and younger. On 28 December 2019, international human rights watchdog has warned prisoners in Iran's jails "are at risk of being tortured". Allegations of sexual violence In January 2020, Amnesty International's investigator on Iran, Raha Bahreini, said she had received reports that a woman protester, detained during anti-government demonstrations following the downing of a Ukrainian passenger plane, had been taken to a police station and sexually assaulted by security forces. Deaths and casualties Death count estimates The BBC has reported that there is a huge variance in reports of the number of people killed in the protests. On 23 December, Reuters reported that a death toll provided by three unnamed Iranian interior ministry officials was "about 1,500" including "at least 17 teenagers and about 400 women". These numbers were described as "fake news" by a government spokesman and based on figures made by the MEK a week prior. Amnesty International reported that "according to credible reports ... at least 304 people were killed and thousands injured between 15 and 18 November". The BBC has reported that unofficial reports from various sources say that from 15 to 19 November, about 200 people were killed and 3,000 injured. UN Human Rights said "dozens of people may have been killed" while Amnesty International places the number at "at least 106". Iranian authorities say "only a few people have been killed". One anonymous dissident politician told US journalist Dexter Filkins that he thinks the higher death estimates may be more accurate as in one location "two hundred people" were buried in "a single night". The Iranian government has announced that 230 persons were killed, including at least six police officers and soldiers. A man in Sirjan was killed and several others were injured after security forces opened fire on protesters on 15 November. The following day, ten protesters were killed during demonstrations. On 19 November, Amnesty International claimed that around 16 people were killed in Kermanshah, 14 each in Bandar-e Mahshahr and in Javanroud, 9 in Mariwan, 8 in Behbahan, 6 each in Ramhormoz, Sadra and in Shiraz, 4 each in Bukan, Karaj and in Robatkarim, 3 in Khorramshahr, 2 each in Abadan, Ahvaz and in Bumahen, and 1 each in Tehran, Isfahan, Eslamshahr, Sanandaj, Shahriar and in Sirjan. According to witness evidence reported in mid-late December, the Bandar-eMahshar death toll was much higher than initially estimated. The Iranian government brought in tanks to the streets of the city and security forces and the IRGC used heavy machine guns against unarmed people, leading to the death of 40–100 people. As of 26 November, Amnesty International reported that over 100 people had been killed during the protests, including accounts of wounded or dead protesters removed by government authorities to hide the magnitude of the crackdown on protesters. According to the BBC Persian, the number of deaths has exceeded 200. According to a report by The Guardian from Shiraz on 1 December, "those on the ground" in the city say the death toll is much higher than the 15 confirmed deaths counted by Amnesty International. Amnesty International reported that the Iranian government threatened families of the killed protestors against talking to the press. The families were forced to not arrange any funerals and to instead to carry out secret burials. Speaking at a news conference at the State Department on 5 December, U.S. Special Representative for Iran Brian Hook stated that Iranian government forces killed more than 1,000 protesters. There were reports by US-backed Radio Farda that by 5 December 18 children had been killed by the Iranian government. As Reuters has reported, on the second day of Iran protest, in the presence of president Hassan Rouhani, some of his ministers and commanders of the security forces, asserting the government was in total danger, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei called to crush the demonstrators, stating "You have my order Do whatever it takes to end it". According to Reuters and the MEK, at least 1500 people, including 400 women and 17 teenagers, were killed in the uprising and that "many were shot directly in the head". Death of injured protesters Human Rights organizations, including Amnesty International, report that many Iranian protesters wounded in November demonstrations, still cannot use hospital attention as they may get arrested. Two injured protesters, Mohammad Maleki, 23 and Amir Ojani, 43 years old, died in last days of January, of acute infection and respiratory diseases. Killing of children On 3 March 2020, Amnesty International announced that security forces in Iran killed at least 23 children during November uprising in this country. The victims were 22 boys of age 12 to 17 and a girl who was under 12 years old. Government responsibility Reuters reports that Iran's supreme leader, Ali Khamenei, and President Hassan Rouhani ordered deadly weapons be used against the protesters. The order was "confirmed by three sources close to the supreme leader’s inner circle and a fourth official, set in motion the bloodiest crackdown on protesters since the Islamic Revolution in 1979". Khamenei has allegedly stated "the decision to use force was not his", but critics have noted that it is the "Supreme National Security Council" that makes decisions on how to deal with such demonstrations and deal with the political crisis in Iran. The council is presided by the president. Iran's constitution prescribes that all decisions taken by the council should be approved by Khamenei. who is also Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces. The government agents in Iran were accused of stealing the bodies of the dead protesters from morgues, and arresting the injured from hospitals, to give the uprising a lower profile. Aftermath Iranian news agency claimed that starting from 19 November 2019, thousands of people in cities across Iran participated in separate pro-government rallies in condemnation of the riots and showed support for the Iran supreme leadership. On 20 November 2019, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani declared victory against the "enemy". Iran started gradually restoring internet connection the following day. Many supporters (including IRGC leader Hossein Salami) also called for the death penalty on anti-government protesters. Amnesty International stated on 16 December that one month after the uprising, Iranian security forces are still arresting people and especially youth. Prisons, such as Fashafouyeh prison near the capital Tehran, are overcrowded with detainees, among them juveniles of 15 and younger. Prisoners are faced with daily torture and harassment. Impacts The savings from the fuel price rises are planned to be distributed to 18 million poor families, representing 75% of Iran's population. However, with inflation already at 40% and a plummeting currency, according to The Economist, "the inflationary effects of the price rise risk wiping out most of the benefit." This inflationary threat has been acknowledged by Khamenei. Debate in the Iranian parliament Several criticisms of the Iranian authorities were made in December 2019 by members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, the Iranian parliament. On 9 December 2019, Parvaneh Salahshouri, a female member of the parliament spoke against the country's top officials accusing them of not understanding the griefs of the low-income people and ignoring the deep-seated glitches of the country. On 10 December 2019, Ali Motahari, a member of Iran's parliament spoke out against the policies of the Supreme Leader and that entities under Khamenei's control have created a stalemate in the parliament. In return another hardliner has asked the Guardian Council to disqualify Motahari as a candidate for the upcoming elections for his "accuses the Supreme Leader in the gasoline issue". Fears that mass uprising could ignite again created conflicts within the Iranian ruling system. In early December 2019, Mahmood Alavi, the Intelligence Minister, has sent a letter to the speaker of the parliament asking him to stop Mahmoud Sadeghi, a member of Parliament, acting "against national interests". Since the protests began in November, Sadeghi continued his attacks against some government entities, including the intelligence system. Sadeghi has also spoken against the forced confessions run by the Ministry of Intelligence and shown on state television. Reactions National Supreme Leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei blamed the protests on "all of the centres of villainy around the world that oppose us." "Both friends and foes should know that we have repelled the enemy in the war in military, political and security issues. The recent actions were security issues, not from the people. We have repelled the enemy in various areas, and by God's grace, we will also definitely repel the enemy in the economic war", (from a meeting with producers, economic activists and entrepreneurs on 19 November). he also stated that setting fire to banks is not the action of ordinary people but of thugs, adding, "of course, officials should also pay attention and decrease the problems associated as much as they can," (from the beginning of Dars-e Kharej (courses at the highest level of religious curriculum taught to students at seminaries) ) on 17 November). Reza Pahlavi, the son of Iran's deposed Shah, tweeted that the Islamic Republic had brought only poverty and suffering to the Iranian people. He also said that the only thing offered for free by the Islamic Republic was oil to its allies in the region, a reference to Syria's president Bashar Assad. Parvaneh Salahshouri, a member of parliament, stated that the decision to increase the price of fuel was not made by the Majles and had been made by the heads of the three branches. Salahshouri stated, "It has been a while now that parliament is not involved in the decision-making process." She continued and, referring to the parliament, said, "The last semblance of a democracy we had is no more. Shut down the next parliament, it is an act of economic resistance". Grand AyatollahMohammad Alavi Gorgani asked the government to "change their decision to increase fuel prices before it is too late". Abolfazl Bahrampour, prominent Iranian Quran scholar, stated that the arrested protesters are Muharib and do not deserve normal execution, but must be tortured to death by mutilation of their right hands and left feet. He made these comments in the Iranian state-sponsored IRIB TV1 citing the 33rd Ayah of Al-Ma'ida Surah: "... The only punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered, or crucified, or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides ...". Dozens of artists living inside Iran published a statement in support of protesters, saying they will not forget the young faces of the dead, who were killed and then ignored by associating them with "foreigners". The statement condemned the violation of the people's "most basic human rights" and their "most apparent needs", and warned that people's voices "will remain in history". Prominent filmmakers including two-time Oscar winner Asghar Farhadi and Berlinale-winner Jafar Panahi, as well as well-known musicians Hossein Alizadeh and Kayhan Kalhor, are among the signatories of the statement. The statement also ridicules speeches by Iranian officials who have blamed protesters as being agents of foreign states, saying "the regime is trying to justify killing them". Golshifteh Farahani, an Iranian actress who has been living in exile in France for the past decade, also carried out an extensive interview about the violent response to protests and the high number of people killed, wounded, or arrested. Speaking to Brut America, Farahani explained that many protesters started demonstrating because of a hike in gas prices, but "never came back home". In the video, the actress stated that the killed protesters were "son of some people", "fathers of some people", "daughters of some people", and "they are dead now". Hichkas, Iranian rapper released a song about the recent protests and the inequality that plagues the Iranian society. In the song, titled "Clenched His Fists", the exiled rapper states the various grievances that led to the demonstrations and describes the brutality of the security forces. The song is in the spoken word format and includes audio snippets recorded by protesters on the street, where voices can be heard saying "they are shooting people". In a comment to an American reporter (Dexter Filkins) an (anonymous Iranian) shop owner in the suburbs of Tehran who had witnessed the protests stated “The 2009 protests showed that the regime had lost the middle class. The protests in November show that they’ve lost the working class, too.” University students On 7 December 2019, commemorating the student's day, university students in various parts of Iran organized rallies shouting slogans against Hassan Rouhani and chief Justice Ebrahim Raeesi. Students also condemned the government for shooting and killing people during recent demonstrations. Bus drivers On 2 December 2019, the Tehran bus drivers' trade union called for the trial of those who ordered the shooting of the protesters. The union described the government's actions as a "massacre and bloody suppression". The statement by the Syndicate of Tehran and Suburbs Bus Company, also expressed concern about the situation of the thousands of detained protesters. Lawyers On 10 December 2019, 160 Iranian lawyers called for an investigation into the November killings. The lawyers also called for information regarding the several thousand detained protestors. Mournings Iranian regime threatens the families of those killed in recent protests not to talk to reporters or others. Nevertheless, families of young people killed by the regime's security forces are not giving in. Mother of Pooya Bakhtiari, killed by government agents, says her son was a "national hero". She continued that her son pursued "freedom, justice and truth", something that Iran's authorities will not grant to the people. International States United States United States: U.S. President of the United States Donald Trump announced his support for the protests stating "Iran has become so unstable that the government has shut down their entire Internet System so that the Great Iranian people cannot talk about the tremendous violence taking place within the country...." U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo supported the demonstrations and stated that "The United States is with ". The Democratic Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders criticized the Iranian government for not letting its civilians protest for a "better future" and to stop "showing violence against demonstrators." On 3 December, US President Donald Trump, while attending NATO summit in London, said, "Iran is killing perhaps thousands and thousands of people right now as we speak". The United States said that the Iranian government had committed "gross human rights violations" during the protests. European Union European Union: Josep Borrell, European Union's new High Representative for Foreign Affairs has condemned the use of deadly force by the Iranian regime against peaceful demonstrators. Almost all political groups and tendencies in the European Parliament voted in favour of a resolution which condemned the Iranian government for its extensive use of force against peaceful protesters in November uprising. European lawmakers called for an independent investigation into atrocities including direct shooting at demonstrators. The resolution calls on the Iranian government "to announce the total number of detainees". The European parliament condemned the government of Iran for harassment of lawyers and journalists, and for denying legal assistance to the large number of protesters already in jail. Germany Germany: Chancellery urged Iran to respect the "legitimate" protests against a petrol price hike and open talks with the demonstrators: "It is legitimate and deserving of our respect when people courageously air their economic and political grievances, as is currently happening in Iran," said ChancellorAngela Merkel's spokeswoman, Ulrike Demmer. France France: The French government said on Wednesday it was deeply concerned about reports of many deaths during protests in Iran and called on Tehran to respect its international human rights duties. France "expresses its deep concern over reports of the deaths of many demonstrators in recent days," Foreign ministry spokeswoman Agnes von der Muhll told reporters in a daily online briefing. "France calls on Iran to respect its international human rights obligations." Sweden Sweden: Foreign MinisterAnn Linde wrote on Twitter: "Terrible casualties in Iran. Nothing can justify this violence. Today's ambassador to Sweden from Our view is informed." Supernationals United Nations United Nations: The UN High Commissioner for Human RightsMichelle Bachelet expressed her "deep concern" about the treatment of the large number of people arrested in the demonstrations. She also expressed concern about torture or execution of detainees. Amnesty International started a petition in which human rights organisations asked United Nations (UN) member states to condemn the Iranian government for the crackdown on the unarmed protesters in the November uprising. The signatories include International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), Human Rights Watch (HRW), Justice for Iran and Amnesty International. "There must be independent and impartial investigations into these killings, and those suspected of ordering and carrying them out must be prosecuted in fair trials," said Philip Luther, Research and Advocacy Director for the Middle East and North Africa at Amnesty International, in response to the killing of at least 23 children by security forces. Sanctions after November uprising The United States implemented sanctions on Mohammad-JavadAzari Jahromi, Iran's communications minister, following the deactivation of internet servers inside Iran. On 19 December 2019, the United States Government enforced sanctions on two Iranian judges, Abolghassem Salavati and Mohammad Moghisseh, for suppressing "freedoms of speech and assembly". Thousands of people are now in Iran's jails just for participating in November uprising. They may face torture or even execution. The two judges have long records of issuing long term prison sentences or death penalties for Iranians longing for democracy and opposed to the rule of the Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei. --- --- ...