Fedora (operating system)

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ID:19028 بخش: Information Technology

به روز شده:Tuesday 14th October 2014

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(Wikipedia) - Fedora (operating system) Not to be confused with Red Hat Linux or Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This article is about the operating system. For other uses, see Fedora (disambiguation). Fedora Developer OS family Working state Source model Initial release Latest release Available in Update method Package manager Platforms Kernel type Userland Default user interface License Official website
Fedora 20 (Heisenbug) with GNOME 3.10
Fedora Project (owned by Red Hat)
Open source
6 November 2003 (2003-11-06)
20 (Heisenbug) (17 December 2013; 9 months ago (2013-12-17))
Yum (PackageKit)
RPM Package Manager
IA-32, x86-64, ARM, PowerPC, s390x, ARM AArch64
Various free software licenses, plus proprietary firmware files.

Fedora /fɨˈdɒr.ə/ (formerly Fedora Core) is an operating system based on the Linux kernel, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and owned by Red Hat. Fedora contains software distributed under a free and open source license and aims to be on the leading edge of such technologies.

Linus Torvalds, author of the Linux kernel, uses Fedora on all his computers.

  • 1 Features
    • 1.1 Software
    • 1.2 Distribution
    • 1.3 Spins
    • 1.4 Architectures
  • 2 History
  • 3 Releases
  • 4 Derivatives
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links


Fedora has a reputation for focusing on innovation, integrating new technologies early on and working closely with upstream Linux communities. Making changes upstream instead of specifically in Fedora ensures that the changes are available to all Linux distributions.

Fedora has a relatively short life cycle: version X is supported only until 1 month after version X+2 and with approximately 6 months between versions, this means that a version of Fedora is supported for approximately 13 months. This promotes leading-edge software because it frees developers from some backward compatibility restraints, but it also makes Fedora a poor choice for product development, which usually requires long-term vendor-support. Fedora users can upgrade from version to version using FedUp.

The default desktop in Fedora is the GNOME desktop environment and the default interface is the GNOME Shell. Other desktop environments, including KDE, Xfce, LXDE, MATE and Cinnamon, are available and can be installed.

Fedora 20 with KDE

Fedora uses the RPM package management system.

Security is also important in Fedora with one specific security feature being Security-Enhanced Linux, which implements a variety of security policies, including mandatory access controls, and which Fedora adopted early on.


Fedora comes installed with a wide range of software such as LibreOffice and Firefox. Additional software is available from the software repositories and can be installed using the yum or dnf package managers with graphical interfaces, such as GNOME Software, also being available.

GNOME Software, Fedora''s default package manager front-end

Additionally, extra repositories can be added to the system, so that software not available in Fedora can be installed.:Section 9.8.1. Third party repositories exist that distribute software not included in Fedora either because they don''t meet Fedora''s definition of free software or because their distribution may violate US law. One of the most popular third-party repositories is RPM Fusion. Fedora also provides users with an easy-to-use build system for creating their own repositories called Copr.


Fedora is distributed in several different ways::Section 2.1.3.

  • Full Distribution on DVD – a DVD image with all major Fedora packages at the time of release;
  • Live Image – a DVD image that can be used to create a Live DVD or Live USB drive and optionally install to a hard disk;
  • Minimal Boot Media – used for installing directly over the network.

A Live USB drive can be created using Fedora Live USB creator or the dd command.:Section 3.2.


Similar to Debian blends, the Fedora Project also distributes custom variations of Fedora called Fedora spins. These are built with specific sets of software packages, offering alternative desktop environments or targeting specific interests such as gaming, security, design, scientific computing and robotics. Fedora spins are developed by several Fedora special interest groups.


Intel x86 and ARM are the primary architecture supported by Fedora. Pidora is specialized Fedora distribution for the Raspberry Pi. As of release 20, Fedora also supports PowerPC and s390 as secondary architectures.


The Fedora Project was created in late 2003, when Red Hat Linux was discontinued. Red Hat Enterprise Linux was to be Red Hat''s only officially supported Linux distribution, while Fedora was to be a community distribution. Red Hat Enterprise Linux branches its releases from versions of Fedora.

The name of Fedora derives from Fedora Linux, a volunteer project that provided extra software for the Red Hat Linux distribution, and from the characteristic fedora hat used in Red Hat''s "Shadowman" logo. Warren Togami began Fedora Linux in 2002 as an undergraduate project, intended to provide a single repository for well-tested third-party software packages so that non-Red Hat software would be easier to find, develop, and use. The key of Fedora Linux and Red Hat Linux was that Fedora''s repository development would be collaborative with the global volunteer community. Fedora Linux was eventually absorbed into the Fedora Project, carrying with it this collaborative approach.

Before Fedora 7, Fedora was called Fedora Core after the name of one of the two main software repositories - Core and Extras. Fedora Core contained all the base packages that were required by the operating system, as well as other packages that were distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs, and was maintained only by Red Hat developers. Fedora Extras, the secondary repository that had been included since Fedora Core 3, was community-maintained and not distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs. Upon the release of Fedora 7, the distinction between Fedora Core and Fedora Extras was eliminated.

Fedora is a trademark of Red Hat, Inc. Red Hat''s application for trademark status for the name "Fedora" was disputed by Cornell University and the University of Virginia Library, creators of the unrelated Fedora Commons digital repository management software. The issue was resolved and the parties settled on a co-existence agreement that stated that the Cornell-UVA project could use the name when clearly associated with open source software for digital object repository systems and that Red Hat could use the name when it was clearly associated with open source computer operating systems.

Releases Main article: List of Fedora releases For releases of Red Hat Linux, see Red Hat Linux#Version history.

The current release is Fedora 20, codenamed "Heisenbug", which was released on 17 December 2013.

Fedora Core 1 with GNOMEFedora 15 and the GNOME Shell Project Name Version Code name Release date End-of-life date Kernel version Fedora Core Fedora
Old version, no longer supported: 1 Yarrow 2003-11-05 2004-09-20 2.4.22
Old version, no longer supported: 2 Tettnang 2004-05-18 2005-04-11 2.6.5
Old version, no longer supported: 3 Heidelberg 2004-11-08 2006-01-16 2.6.9
Old version, no longer supported: 4 Stentz 2005-06-13 2006-08-07 2.6.11
Old version, no longer supported: 5 Bordeaux 2006-03-20 2007-07-02 2.6.15
Old version, no longer supported: 6 Zod 2006-10-24 2007-12-07 2.6.18
Old version, no longer supported: 7 Moonshine 2007-05-31 2008-06-13 2.6.21
Old version, no longer supported: 8 Werewolf 2007-11-08 2009-01-07 2.6.23
Old version, no longer supported: 9 Sulphur 2008-05-13 2009-07-10 2.6.25
Old version, no longer supported: 10 Cambridge 2008-11-25 2009-12-18 2.6.27
Old version, no longer supported: 11 Leonidas 2009-06-09 2010-06-25 2.6.29
Old version, no longer supported: 12 Constantine 2009-11-17 2010-12-02 2.6.31
Old version, no longer supported: 13 Goddard 2010-05-25 2011-06-04 2.6.33
Old version, no longer supported: 14 Laughlin 2010-11-02 2011-12-08 2.6.35
Old version, no longer supported: 15 Lovelock 2011-05-24 2012-06-26 2.6.38
Old version, no longer supported: 16 Verne 2011-11-08 2013-02-12 3.1
Old version, no longer supported: 17 Beefy Miracle 2012-05-29 2013-07-30 3.3
Old version, no longer supported: 18 Spherical Cow 2013-01-15 2014-01-14 3.6
Older version, yet still supported: 19 Schrödinger''s Cat 2013-07-02 3.9
Current stable version: 20 Heisenbug 2013-12-17 3.11
Future release: 21 - 2014-12-02
Legend: Old version Older version, still supported Latest version Latest preview version Future release
  • ^ At the time of release. Supported releases are often updated to the latest stable version.
  • DerivativesFedora family treeSee also: List of Fedora-based Linux distributions

    Some notable Fedora derivative Linux distributions are:

    • Korora – a complete and easy to use system for general computing that “just works” out of the box.
    • OLPC OS – for the One Laptop per Child laptops.
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux – enterprise Linux offering from Red Hat, which branches from the current Fedora baseline.
    • Tizen – for embedded devices.

    Tags:Cambridge, Cinnamon, Cornell, Cornell University, Default, Fedora, Firefox, Goddard, Leonidas, Linux, Media, Raspberry Pi, Red Hat, Shell, US, USB, Virginia, Wikipedia

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