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ID:5540 Section: Place

Updated:Monday 13th October 2014

Egypt ?

Egypt Definition

Arab Republic of Egypt, country in northern Africa It is one of the world's oldest civilizations. After the upper and lower Egypt were united around 3000 BC, a period of cultural achievement began and a line of native rulers that lasted nearly 3,000 years. Egypt's ancient history is divided into the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, spanning 31 dynasties and lasting to 332 BC. The Pyramids date from the Old Kingdom, the cult of Osiris and the refinement of sculpture from the Middle Kingdom, and the era of empire and the Exodus of the Jews from the New Kingdom. An Assyrian invasion occurred in the 7th century BC, and the Persian Achaemenids established a dynasty in 525 BC. The invasion by Alexander the Great in 332 BC inaugurated the Macedonian Ptolemaic period and the ascendancy of Alexandria as a centre of learning and Hellenistic culture. The Romans held Egypt from 30 BC to AD 395; later it was placed under the control of the Byzantine Empire. After the Roman emperor Constantine granted tolerance to the Christians in 313, a formal Egyptian (Coptic) church emerged. Egypt came under Arab control in 642 and ultimately was transformed into an Arabic-speaking state, with Islam as the dominant religion. Held by the Umayyad and Abbasi dynasties, in 969 it became the centre of the Fatemid dynasty. In 1250 the Mamluk dynasty established a state that lasted until 1517, when Egypt fell to the Ottoman Empire. An economic and cultural decline ensued. Egypt became a British protectorate in 1914 and received nominal independence in 1922, when a constitutional monarchy was established. A group of army officers led by Jamal Abdol Naser overthrew the monarchy in 1952. A union with Syria to form the United Arab Republic (1958-61) failed. Following three wars with Israel , Egypt, under Nasser's successor, Anwar Sadat, made peace with the Jewish state, thus alienating many fellow Arab countries. Sadat was assassinated by Islamic extremists in 1981 and was succeeded by Hosni Mobarak, who continued to negotiate peace. Although Egypt took part in the coalition against Iraq during the Persian Gulf War (1991), it later began peace overtures with countries in the region, including Iraq. Iran-Egypt ties were cut after the Islamic revolution on a row that began by renaming the Vozara St., a major street in Tehran after Khaled Estanbuli, the killer of Anwar Sadaat. Normal relations could never be restored afterwards. (Wikipedia) - Egypt This article is about the modern country. For the ancient realm, see Ancient Egypt. For other uses, see Egypt (disambiguation). Arab Republic of Egypt جمهورية مصر العربية  Jumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah (Arabic) Gomhūriyyet Maṣr el-ʿArabiyyah (Egyptian Arabic) Official languages National language Demonym Government Legislature Establishment Area Population Currency Time zone Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady My country, my country, my countrySorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player. You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.
Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217
Egyptian Arabic
Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
 -  Prime Minister Ibrahim Mahlab
Legislation by presidential decree (Temporarily until the House of Representatives is elected)
 -  Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3150 BC 
 -  Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated 9 July 1805 
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom 28 February 1922 
 -  Republic declared 18 June 1953 
 -  Revolution Day 23 July 1952 
 -  Current Constitution 18 January 2014 
 -  Total 1,002,450 km2 (30th) 387,048 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.632
 -  2014 estimate 87,269, 564 (15th)
 -  2006 census 72,798,000
 -  Density 84/km2 (126th) 218/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $576.350 billion
 -  Per capita $6,714
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $275.748 billion
 -  Per capita $3,213
Gini (2008) 30.8 medium
HDI (2013)  0.682 medium · 110th
Egyptian pound (EGP)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
  • .eg
  • مصر.
a. ^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language. Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
b. ^ Summer time was reintroduced in 2014.
c. "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world''s oldest nation". Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.

Egypt (i/ˈiːdʒɪpt/; Arabic: مِصر‎ Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصر Maṣr) is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, making it an Afro-Asiatic country via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Most of Egypt''s territory of 1,010,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi) lies within the Nile Valley of North Africa, but it is also considered a Mediterranean country as well, as Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It''s also bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.

With over 87 million inhabitants, Egypt is a large country in Eastern North Africa and the Arabic speaking countries with its smaller part in the Middle East, making it the third-largest African country, and the fifteenth-most populous nation in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara Desert, which constitute most of Egypt''s territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt''s residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BCE as one of the world''s first nation states. Considered a cradle of civilization, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government in history. Its iconic monuments, such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings outside Luxor, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest all over the world. Egypt''s rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, having endured and at times assimilated various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European.

Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Its economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels.

  • 1 Names
  • 2 History
    • 2.1 Prehistory and Ancient Egypt
    • 2.2 Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt
    • 2.3 Middle Ages
    • 2.4 Egypt Eyalet
    • 2.5 Muhammad Ali dynasty
    • 2.6 Republic
      • 2.6.1 The reign of president Nasser
      • 2.6.2 The reign of president Sadat
      • 2.6.3 The reign of president Mubarak
    • 2.7 Revolution
  • 3 Geography
    • 3.1 Climate
    • 3.2 Biodiversity
  • 4 Politics
    • 4.1 Law
    • 4.2 Military
    • 4.3 Human rights
    • 4.4 Foreign relations
  • 5 Administrative divisions
  • 6 Economy
    • 6.1 Tourism
    • 6.2 Transport
      • 6.2.1 Railway
      • 6.2.2 Metro
      • 6.2.3 Air Transport
      • 6.2.4 Suez Canal
  • 7 Demographics
    • 7.1 Languages
    • 7.2 Religion
    • 7.3 Largest cities
  • 8 Culture
    • 8.1 Arts
    • 8.2 Literature
    • 8.3 Popular culture
    • 8.4 Cinema in Egypt
    • 8.5 Music of Egypt
    • 8.6 Dance in Egypt
    • 8.7 Museums
    • 8.8 Festivals
    • 8.9 Cuisine
    • 8.10 Sports
  • 9 Telecommunication
    • 9.1 Cellular
    • 9.2 Post
  • 10 Education
  • 11 Healthcare
    • 11.1 Health Insurance
  • 12 See also
  • 13 Notes
  • 14 References
  • 15 External links


The English name Egypt is derived from the Ancient Greek Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος), via Middle French Egypte and Latin Aegyptus. It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as a-ku-pi-ti-yo. The adjective aigýpti-, aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic as gyptios, and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into قبط qubṭ, whence English Copt. The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian (Amarna) Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hwt-ka-Ptah (⟨ḥwt-k-ptḥ⟩), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo attributed the word to a folk etymology in which Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος) evolved as a compound from Aigaiou huptiōs (Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως), meaning "below the Aegean".

Miṣr (IPA: ) is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr (IPA: ) is the Egyptian-local pronunciation in the Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם (Mitzráyim). The word originally connoted "metropolis" or "civilization" and means "country", or "frontier-land".

The ancient Egyptian name of the country was

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